White-lumbar Thrush Shama (Copsychus malabaricus) - a small bird of the flycatcher family (earlier it was referred to the Drozdov family). White-lumbar thrushes live in densely vegetated areas of the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Usually they weigh 28-34 g, and reach 23-28 cm in length. The plumage of males is glossy black, chestnut on the belly, and white on the outside of the tail. Females are grayer and generally smaller than males. Both sexes have a black beak and pink paws. In juveniles, the plumage is gray-brown, and there are spots on the chest.
Initially, the white-rumped thrushes lived in South and Southeast Asia (India, Indochina, Sri Lanka and the adjacent islands), but their maintenance in cages as songbirds led to the fact that they began to be resettled to new territories. In 1931 from Malaysia, white-rumped thrushes were transported to the Hawaiian island of Kauan, and in 1940 - to Oahu. In Asia, their habitat is dense undergrowth of bamboo forests. In Hawaii, they are common in forests and mountain ranges, usually nesting in undergrowth, forests with low deciduous trees.
White-lumbar Thrush Shama is considered one of the best singers: his song is sonorous, flute, with the inclusion of knees borrowed from songs of other birds. Thrush loves to sing, sitting on the very top of a tree or other high perch, and in this species both males and females sing. Singing in birds of this species is melodic and varied, therefore their keeping in cages in South and Southeast Asia has become popular. White-lumbar thrushes sing loudly, clearly, reproduce many melodies, often imitating other birds. The singing of this bird species was one of the first ever recorded. It was made by Ludwig Karl Koch in 1889 in Germany with the help of Edison's phonograph.
White-lumbar Thrush Shama very territorial. During the breeding season, which lasts from January to September in South Asia, the male and female cover an average of 0.09 ha. The nest of roots, leaves and stems of plants is built only by the female and is located in the hollow of the tree. The clutch of these birds usually contains 4-5 eggs. Only the female is engaged in incubation of the clutch, while the male protects her at this time. The incubation period lasts 12 to 15 days. Chicks hatch naked and helpless and require unremitting parental care. On days 12-16, the fledgling babies leave the nest and begin to master the science of flight and the search for food. During the season, an adult couple manages to make one or two clutches.
In nature, white-lumbar thrushes feed on insects; in captivity, they can eat grain mixtures with the addition of egg yolk and raw meat. Thrushes feed mainly on the ground, less often on the branches of trees and shrubs, and their diet largely depends on the season. They can eat earthworms, caterpillars, beetles and other insects, land and sea molluscs.