Bird Families

Large owl nightjar, or red owl frogmouth, a species of bird from the family of owl nightjars

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Owl frogs (lat. Aegothelidae) are a family of goat-like, contains one genus with nine species. The range is limited to New Guinea, one species lives in Australia and Tasmania, another in the Moluccas and another in New Caledonia. They live in open and dense forests.

Description

With their appearance, above all their round head and fit, they are similar to owls. However, they are smaller and reach lengths from 19 to 32 cm. Their eyes are located on the sides. The beak is small, stiff and surrounded by long bristles. Their legs are short in comparison with the body and graceful. Short, wide beaks are surrounded by bristly feathers at the base of the beak. The plumage pattern consists of thin dark waves on the main light color or of large white specks.

Lifestyle

Birds, active at night and at dusk, rest during the day in tree hollows or on branches. They are loners. At night and at dawn, they look for insects, spiders and other invertebrates on the ground, or catch their prey in the air. Owl frogs nest in hollows of trees, sometimes also in caves on steep banks, and spend the day there. They do not build a real nest, but only spread the soil with leaves. In clutch there are 3 to 5 white eggs. The rest of their behavior is unknown. Birds make cooing sounds, soft whistles, loud hiss and harsh cries.

Big owl nightjar

The large owl nightjar, or red owl frogmouth, is a species of bird from the family of owl nightjars. Inhabits mountainous regions in the southeast and east of New Guinea. It feeds on insects.

The species was described by the Italian ornithologist Tommaso Salvadori in 1876. Together with other large owl nightjars, some scientists stand out as a separate genus Euaegotheles. It is considered sister to the Aegotheles tatei, which lives in the lowland regions of New Guinea, and has long been considered a subspecies of the great owl nightjar.

1. Description

With a body length of 28 - 30 cm and a weight of 59 - 85 g, the large owl nightjar is probably the largest member of the family. The plumage of birds is mainly colored brown and auburn; in the upper part and on the head, there are several white markers. The throat is light, there are bright white spots on the chest and belly. The tail is long, tail feathers are straight, with slightly pointed tips, the central pair of feathers is narrower than the rest. The broad beak is stronger than that of other owl nightjars, with a dark brown upper beak and light lower beak. Elongated feathers above the ears; vibrissae on the face are black, on a white base. There is no sexual dimorphism. The color of the iris of the eye, depending on age, has different shades of brown; in young individuals, the iris is lighter and is combined with the color of the plumage. American ornithologist Thane Pratt Thane K. Pratt noted that young birds have larger white markers, vibrissae on the face are longer than in adults. The tail is also longer; not all tail feathers change after the first molt.

The size of the birds increases depending on the habitat from west to east of the island. Many scientists distinguish two distinct color morphs: brown and red, inherent in both males and females. Perhaps this polymorphism is not true, as there are individuals with intermediate coloration. Pratt believes that color is an age sign, with red plumage changing to darker over time.

Like the rest of the family, large owl nightjars are predominantly nocturnal. During the day, birds hide in the hollows of trees, heaps of fallen leaves and tangles of vines. The entrance to the hollow can be at a height of up to 20 m, and the diameter of the entrance is 9 - 10 cm. Very little is known about the vocalization of large owl nightjars. Several beeps were recorded: a series of ascending "owrr" slightly reminiscent of a trill, a single or repeated "kee", and "foh ... foh".

2. Dissemination

Large owl nightjars live in the mountains in the southeastern and eastern parts of the island of New Guinea in countries such as Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The area of ​​the range is about 637 thousand km² and includes the Chendravasih Peninsula, the Bivani and Adelbert Mountains, the Huon Peninsula and the Owen Stanley Ridge. Height above sea level varies from 1150 to 2800 m, it can reach 3000 m. The predominant habitat is virgin mountain forests, also found in secondary forests, on river banks and on forest edges. Apparently leads a sedentary lifestyle.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature lists the Great Owl Nightjar as a Least Concern species. Birds are widespread in some regions of New Guinea, including in inaccessible mountain areas. They are often celebrated in the Kurram region.

3. Nutrition

The peculiarities of hunting and feeding of large owl nightjars are not described, but the contents of the intestines indicate that the diet includes insects, in particular beetles.

4. Reproduction

Birds that are ready to breed were sighted in April, May, August and September; more precise information on the breeding season is not available. Birds are believed to lay their eggs in tree hollows, but no nests or eggs have been described so far.

The appearance of the chicks is practically unknown. Young red morph birds were found in November.

5. Taxonomy

The large owl nightjar was first described by the Italian ornithologist Tommaso Salvadori 1835 - 1923 in 1876. Some sources indicate 1875 based on a specimen obtained in the Arfak Mountains of the Chendravasih Peninsula. Along with other large owl nightjars - Aegotheles tatei and Moluccan nightjack Aegotheles crinifrons - belongs to the group of "least developed" species. They are characterized by a wide and rather strong beak, a similar red plumage, especially on the shoulder blades and in the lower part of the body, straight tail feathers with slightly pointed tips and elongated feathers above the ears. Some scientists distinguish them into a separate genus Euaegotheles. At the same time, American ornithologist Storrs Lovejoy Olson noted that the great and the Moluccan nightjack do not show a close relationship.

Aegotheles tatei, inhabiting the plains of New Guinea, despite the difference in size and other morphological differences, is sister to this taxon, previously they were combined into one species. At the same time, the Canadian ornithologist Austin Loomer Rand 1905 - 1982, who described Aegotheles insignis tatei in 1941, noted that birds differ significantly from the other two subspecies of the great owl nightjar identified at that time. The division came about on the basis of Pratt's research published in 2000 and supported by most modern scholars. Some scientists propose the separation of these two species into a separate genus.

The allocation of birds in the southeastern part of New Guinea, in particular in the Aroa River basin, into a separate subspecies Aegotheles insignis pulcher is not supported, therefore it is believed that the species is not divided into subspecies.

  • Black-backed owl nightjar or New Caledonian owl nightjar or black-backed owl frogmouth, or New Caledonian owl frogmouth lat. Aegotheles
  • Moluccan owl nightjar Halmacher owl nightjar or Moluccan owl frogmouth lat. Aegotheles crinifrons - a species of bird from the family of owl nightjars
  • plumage. On the other hand, the three large species of owl nightjars - the great owl, the Moluccan, and the Aegotheles tatei - are the least
  • Striped owl nightjar or Bennett's owl frogmouth lat. Aegotheles bennettii is a species of bird from the family of owl nightjars. Plumage of birds from above
  • Mountain owl nightjar or mountain owl frog frog lat. Aegotheles albertisi is a species of bird from the family of owl nightjars. Live in the mountains on the island
  • in 2000 and supported by most modern scientists. Large owl nightjar found in the mountains of New Guinea, despite the difference in size
  • nightjar Chordeiles nacunda - white-bellied nightjar Chordeiles pusillus - dwarf twilight nightjar Chordeiles minor - Virginian dusky nightjar Nyctidromus
  • Common nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus Red-cheeked nightjar Caprimulgus rufigena Bucky nightjar Caprimulgus aegyptius Nubian nightjar Caprimulgus
  • Nightjars Small dusky nightjar Chordeiles acutipennis Virginian dusky nightjar Chordeiles minor American white-chinned nightjar Phalaenoptilus nuttallii
  • affinis - Savannah Nightjar Caprimulgus concretus - Bonaparte Nightjars Caprimulgus indicus - Great Nightjars Caprimulgus macrurus - Horsfield Nightjars Collocalia
  • Caprimulgidae Caprimulgus europaeus - common nightjar Caprimulgus aegyptius - buckskin nightjar Swift family Apodidae Apus apus - black swift
  • capensis Virginian twilight nightjar - Chordeiles minor Common nightjar - Caprimulgus europaeus Red-necked nightjar - Caprimulgus ruficollis Black
  • Caprimulgidae Caprimulgus europaeus - common nightjar Caprimulgus aegyptius - buckskin nightjar Swift family Apodidae Apus apus - black swift
  • hodgsoni Great Nightjar Caprimulgus indicus Horsefield Nightjar Caprimulgus macrurus Indian Nightjar Caprimulgus asiaticus Savannah Nightjar Caprimulgus
  • otus Short-eared owl - Asio flammeus Common nightjar - Caprimulgus europaeus Lesser crepuscular nightjar - Chordeiles minor Black swift - Apus apus White-bellied
  • flammeus Upland Owl Aegolius funereus Red-necked Nightjar Caprimulgus ruficollis Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus Black Swift Apus apus Pale
  • Family: True nightjars Common nightjars Caprimulgus europaeus Bucky nightjars Caprimulgus aegyptius Nubian nightjars Caprimulgus nubicus Order: Swift-like
  • Asio flammeus Red-necked nightjar - Caprimulgus ruficollis Common nightjar - Caprimulgus europaeus Brown-headed nightjar - Caprimulgus aegyptius White-bellied
  • Asio otus Short-eared Owl - Asio flammeus Common Nightjar - Caprimulgus europaeus Bucky Nightjar - Caprimulgus aegyptius White-bellied Swift - Tachymarptis
  • nigripennis Siphonorhis americana - Jamaican Lesser Nightjar Aegotheles savesi - New Caledonian Owl Nightjar Aerodramus bartschi - Guam Salangan Aerodramus
  • South Asian Nightjar - Eurostopodus mystacalis Nightjar - Argus - Eurostopodus argus Horsefield Nightjar - Caprimulgus macrurus Barrow Nightjar - Caprimulgus
  • True Nightjars - Caprimulgidae Caprimulgus europaeus - Common Nightjar Family Cuckoo - Cuculidae Cuculus canorus - Common Cuckoo
  • Upland Owl - Aegolius funereus Common Nightjar - Caprimulgus europaeus Red-necked Nightjar - Caprimulgus ruficollis Thorntail - Hirundapus
  • Caprimulgidae Caprimulgus indicus - large or Indian, nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus - common nightjar Main article: List of Russian Swift birds
  • True Nightjars - Caprimulgidae Caprimulgus europaeus - Common Nightjar Family Cuckoo - Cuculidae Cuculus canorus - Common Cuckoo
  • funereus Long-eared Owl Asio otus Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus Common Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus Black Swift Apus apus Common Kingfisher
  • Athene noctua Long-eared owl Asio otus Short-eared owl Asio flammeus Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus White-bellied swift Tachymarptis melba Black swift
  • Aegolius funereus Long-eared Owl Asio otus Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus Black Swift Apus apus Common Kingfisher
  • Aegolius funereus Long-eared Owl Asio otus Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus Black Swift Apus apus Common Kingfisher
  • otus Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus Upland Owl Aegolius funereus Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus Black Swift Apus apus Pale Swift Apus pallidus

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Small forest owls with a very large head, referring to the islands, the black-backed owl, A. savesi, is found only in the east of the island. Great nightjar Caprimulgus jotaka Temminck & Schlegel. Nightjar owl squad Nightjars, family Nightjars owls. Mountain owl nightjar Aegotheles albertisi. Habitat New Guinea. Length.

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