A dumb or Japanese quail (Coturnix Japonica) also lives in Russia. It was domesticated in Japan in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is the main bird on quail farms.
Currently, several breeds of Japanese quail have been obtained by selection: marble, pharaoh, etc., which are bred for the production of eggs and meat, both at home and on an industrial scale.
The live weight of males of domestic quail is about 110 g, of females up to 150 g. Japanese domestic quails begin to lay eggs at the age of 50 - 60 days (for comparison, chickens begin to lay no earlier than 180 - 210 days). Each quail can lay up to 300 or more tasty and healthy eggs per year, each weighing 10 - 14 g.
Production of quail eggs is cheaper than chicken eggs, and quail breeding is the most profitable poultry farming. A female quail with a live weight of 125 g, egg production of 250 - 300 eggs has an egg mass 20 - 24 times more than the bird itself (in chickens, 8 times). In addition, quails serve as "suppliers" of high quality meat, which is considered a dietary product. It is not for nothing that in Russia quail dishes were considered royal food.
In order to breed domestic quail breeds in many countries from the middle of the XX century. specialized quail farms (farms) have been created, the profitability of which is quite high. Even specialized breeds of Japanese quail in different directions have been bred - egg and broiler (meat) ones. Broiler quails quickly reach a mass of up to 200 - 250 g, while the mass of egg-shaped birds rarely exceeds 150 - 180 g.
Quail eggs surpass chicken eggs in many nutrients. Five quail eggs, equal in weight to one chicken, contain 5 times more potassium, 4.5 times more iron, 2.5 times more vitamins B1 and B2. Quail eggs contain much more vitamin A, nicotinic acid, phosphorus, copper, cobalt, limiting and other amino acids. Quails have more protein in their eggs than other brood birds. For example, in chickens 55.8% of the protein will be held in an egg, in quails - 60%.
In most brood birds, the egg shell is more than 10% of the mass of the entire egg, in quails - only 7.2%. The shell of quail eggs is pigmented, very fragile, but has a strong and elastic under-shell film. The color of the quail eggshell varies from very dark, yellow - brown to pure white. The density of quail eggs is less than that of chicken eggs, which is obviously due to the lower relative mass of the shell.
Quail eggs are a concentrated biological set of substances necessary for a person; they are real ampoules of health. In the literature, there is information that in ancient times, eggs and quail meat were used in oriental folk medicine. This was one of the reasons for the domestication and selection of quail in Japan. Even in the days of the pharaohs in Egypt, quail meat was credited with medicinal properties. In Japan, raw quail eggs are still used in a mixture with orange juice to treat asthma.
Quail eggs are a valuable food product that can be recommended in the diet of children and adults for a number of diseases. They do not cause allergic reactions even in those people for whom chicken eggs are contraindicated.
In Central Asia, quail is believed to bring wealth and prosperity to the house where it is kept in a cage. In addition, quails are appreciated for their beautiful songs. In the old days, in the Kursk province, they even kept domestic singing quails and for their songs they were valued no less than the Kursk nightingales.
Moving deeper into Australia, the Europeans found skillful structures made of thin twigs in the forests - huts decorated with multicolored stuff, awnings, high (up to 2 m) turrets, leaning.
A breed of pigeons bred by pigeon breeders of the city of Baku. In Azerbaijan, they do not pay much attention to the color and pattern of pigeons, the main indicators of the dignity of the depths are the fight and the duration.
Genus Finches - Fringilla Forest birds are sparrow-sized, wings are black or dark brown with two white stripes. They usually feed on the ground, sing in the crowns. The nest is a neat build of.
Why do we choose birds as our friends?
First of all, at the call of the soul. There are several dozen of us in the St. Petersburg Poultry Club. And everyone is improving in the manifestation of love and care for the birds, and not only for them.
It is no secret that many of us, loving our neighbor more than ourselves, will certainly strive to take responsibility - for his health, for his material security, for his happiness, for safety. But the trouble is that our family and friends also inherit these social feelings, this desire to care and take responsibility. Therefore, in response, we often hear: "Yes, get off you!".
And here, out of nowhere, a Japanese quail appears: a bird of cell content! The dog, jumping out into the street, will find a bone for itself in a couple of minutes. The cat will get drunk in four walls and will catch a mouse for itself. And the quail is sitting in a cage! However, of all family members, he turns out to be the most useful.
As an experienced scientist, I first studied all the available literature on Japanese quail. And what did I learn? It turns out that during the Soviet-Czechoslovak space flight, the Czechoslovak cosmonauts took an incubator and Japanese quails with them into orbit. The hatched chickens were left for the testicles, and the cockerels for meat. Like in the best restaurants in Prague! Both comfort and pleasure!
Quails and dogs in the house
She brought a family of quails into the house and solemnly put them in a cage, poured water, poured food. And the quails, having noticed the dogs, began to show anxiety, trying to jump out of the cage away from the dogs. I covered the cage with a red cloth. And I say to the dogs: "Well, now you have more work, watch!" And Bunny and Watchdog: "That's great! Just jump out!" We lay down tightly under the cage, ready to wait for days for the bird to jump out. As soon as I didn’t persuade them, I scolded and beat them, and they caught everyone in a week. And Barbosa - a dwarf Tibetan Terrier - what to beat? He is executing the command! "You said yourself: watchmen! Holy work!"
He indignantly defends his innocence. And the Bunny is hiding behind the Barbosa.
But I didn't stop there. I bought two more cages and acquired three more families of quails. Now she herself began to guard them from the dogs! And only when at the dacha the dogs saw a rat creeping up to the cage, and I rushed to drive it away, they immediately understood everything: "So that's who we need to guard from! I would say so right away. I would show us this rat right away. We would instantly realized! ".
Dogs are cunning. Well, where else would they find such a quail hunt? And here they don't seem to understand. As if on duty! In general, they were justified. And hunting is not forbidden to them, and respect from the hostess. And they don't need anything else. Deftly defended their doggy image! It's even more fun to hunt rats. At least you can fight, and the loot is bigger. And if a muskrat comes across, then the two of us are fed up for three days. Bunny, the younger dog is a mestizo: mother is a miniature schnauzer, father is Manchester, the reaction is rapid, teeth - wow! And Watchdog leads the shy Bunny to attack!
Since then, my dogs have been strangling rats in a fair way. And they don't even pay attention to quails. Now the quail, if it gets out of the cage, calmly runs around the sleeping dogs.
What has changed in my life with the advent of quails?
Friends and acquaintances - filtered out. Some began to consider me a freak. Others stopped visiting. They think that in my house it smells like a bird. Although I clean the cells every day, and if it smells slightly, it’s only spruce sawdust. But the dogs swear at the guests, so as not to approach the cages: "It is ordered to guard!" On the other hand, my friends had a new interest in me. They have ceased to be afraid of leukemia, heart attacks, strokes and head injuries. The fact is that the use of fertilized quail eggs perfectly raises immunity, activates the nerve cells of the cerebral cortex, and regulates the activity of the endocrine glands.
Now, if one of the close people of my friends ends up in intensive care, they immediately call me, run after the quail eggs. In two cases, a very good result was obtained when drugs did not help in the treatment of inoperable intracranial hematomas. The addition of quail eggs to the drugs gave one hundred percent result. When one of the relatives of my friends and acquaintances, after an oncological operation, goes to Pesochnaya, they certainly order quail testicles from me in order to preserve the blood formula. Here you will not get away from our passionate solicitude!
On the garden plot, quails are irreplaceable - they eat all wood lice in the beds, in greenhouses and supply berry bushes and fruit trees with first-class environmentally friendly fertilizer. Unlike chicken droppings, quail droppings do not burn them when they come into contact with plant roots. Unlike cow dung, quail manure is more readily soluble in water, so it is more convenient to use it as a liquid top dressing.
I have been engaged in quailing for 14 years. My family and friends, along with my quails, found a niche in environmental safety and a small, not too laborious additional source of income. Mom celebrated her ninetieth birthday, memory is better than mine, vision is one.
Nobody believes that my Bunny is twenty years old, and Barbos is twenty-three years old. They are not given so many years, and they do not take! After all, since childhood, they feasted on quail eggs.
As soon as the incubator starts to smell like hatching chickens (the testicles are already squeaking), the dogs lie down next to them and begin to lick their lips. Their favorite delicacy is slightly welded under-hatched chickens from those that did not survive: "For this you can even endure the chirping of these vile quail cocks!" They go for a walk important: "Just think, shepherd dogs! But we are the watchmen on the quail farm! What we guard, we have!" Big dogs sniff them from all sides: "Oh, really. How tasty!"
Despite the great benefits and joy of the birds, you should still start them only after carefully considering and discussing all the pros and cons. Where a conflict situation quickly arises or a lifestyle is stipulated by a strict charter, one should refrain from breeding birds. Sometimes you don't understand what caused the bird to die. And insults, tears and punishments - you will not get around. For many young children, the death of a bird can also be a serious emotional trauma. All this should be carefully considered.
Larisa Pavlova, amateur quail breeder
Quail(Coturnix coturnix), a bird of the pheasant family. length up to 20 cm. Distributed in Europe, Africa and Southwestern Asia, in Russia - eastward to Lake Baikal. Winters in Africa and South. Asia. Inhabits fields and meadows, plains and mountains. predominantly herbivorous. Breeds in open areas with developed herbaceous cover, nests on the ground, in clutch of up to 24 eggs. The number is decreasing. Previously, it was an object of autumn hunting in the Crimea and the Caucasus. On Wednesday. Asia P. are kept in cages for the sake of "singing" and as a fighting bird. A closely related species - dumb P. (C. japonicus), in Japan and Russia is raised on farms for meat and eggs (up to 70 eggs per year), egg lines (250-320 eggs per year). There are about 15 known quail breeds.
Kingdom of Animalia
Type / Division Chordata
In total, 11 species and 26 intraspecific taxa of quails are known:
Coturnix adansonii J. Verreaux & E. Verreaux, 1851 - African Blue Partridge
Coturnix chinensis (Linnaeus, 1766) - Chinese painted quail
- Coturnix chinensis chinensis (Linnaeus, 1766)
- Coturnix chinensis colletti (Mathews, 1912)
- Coturnix chinensis lepida (Hartlaub, 1879)
- Coturnix chinensis lineata (Scopoli, 1786)
- Coturnix chinensis novaeguineae (Rand, 1941)
- Coturnix chinensis palmeri (Riley, 1919)
- Coturnix chinensis papuensis Mayr & Rand, 1936
- Coturnix chinensis trinkutensis (Richmond, 1902)
- Coturnix chinensis victoriae (Mathews, 1912)
Coturnix coromandelica (Gmelin, 1789) - Black-breasted quail
Coturnix coturnix (Linnaeus, 1758) - Common quail
- Coturnix coturnix africana Temminck & Schlegel, 1849
- Coturnix coturnix conturbans Hartert, 1917
- Coturnix coturnix coturnix (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Coturnix coturnix erlangeri Zedlitz, 1912
- Coturnix coturnix inopinata Hartert, 1917
Coturnix delegorguei Delegorgue, 1847 - Harlequin Quail
- Coturnix delegorguei arabica Bannerman, 1929
- Coturnix delegorguei arabica Bannerman, 1929
- Coturnix delegorguei delegorguei Delegorgue, 1847
- Coturnix delegorguei histrionica Hartlaub, 1849
Coturnix japonica Temminck & Schlegel, 1849 - Japanese mute quail
Coturnix novaezealandiae Quoy & Gaimard, 1830 synonym for Coturnix novaezelandiae Quoy & Gaimard, 1830
Coturnix novaezelandiae Quoy & Gaimard, 1830 New Zealand Quail
Coturnix pectoralis Gould, 1837 - Australian quail
Coturnix ypsilophora Bosc, 1792 - Brown quail
- Coturnix ypsilophora australis (Latham, 1802)
- Coturnix ypsilophora dogwa Mayr & Rand, 1935
- Coturnix ypsilophora mafulu Mayr & Rand, 1935
- Coturnix ypsilophora monticola Mayr & Rand, 1935
- Coturnix ypsilophora pallidior (Hartert, 1897)
- Coturnix ypsilophora plumbea (Salvadori, 1894)
- Coturnix ypsilophora raaltenii (S. Muller, 1842)
- Coturnix ypsilophora saturatior (Hartert, 1930)
- Coturnix ypsilophora ypsilophora Bosc, 1792