Bird Families

Rare and vagrant birds of the Chukotka Peninsula


  1. Description
  2. Planting and leaving
  3. Reproduction
  4. Diseases and pests
  5. Use in landscape design

The solid European beech is famous for its special beauty. This is a truly chic, elegant tree that can become a unique decoration for any territory. The article will discuss what features are characteristic of European beech, and how it should be properly grown.


European beech is a powerful deciduous tree that has beautiful slender branches.... It attracts attention with a very dense and lush crown, through which even the sun's rays cannot break through. The handsome beech lends itself to cutting and shaping, thanks to which it acquires a more well-groomed and presentable appearance. Such a gorgeous tree makes complex living walls and hedges.

The European beech is common in the Northern Hemisphere. The tree grows almost throughout Western and partly Eastern Europe. Another "relative" of the breed in question, the oriental beech, also grows here. These are truly majestic trees that form beautiful green parks, where light darkness and mysterious silence reign.

There are many subspecies of European beech, for example, red-leaved, Davik Gold, Tricolor and many others. Each of them can be a stunning addition to your landscape design. The considered tree species is distinguished by a very large and dense trunk, decorative crown. It is generally accepted that European beech accumulates positive energy, due to which it is able to maintain both physiological and emotional balance of a person.

The lion's share of European beech varieties have a columnar-type trunk. The barrel thickness can be up to 2 meters. Throughout its life, this tree can grow up to 35-40 m. It has a well-branched root system. The roots grow anchored and number several. They grow very deep into the ground. But the European beech has no central rods.

The European breed is never in a hurry to bear fruit. Usually, fruiting of this solid tree does not occur earlier than in 20-40 years. Pollination of inflorescences is carried out by the natural influence of the wind. It so happens that such a beech begins to bear fruit only after it turns 60 years old.

Young shoots of a European plant have a red or light gray bark. The leaves of plants are large and up to 10 cm long. The leaf plates grow shiny, slightly fibrous at the edges. With the onset of summer, the foliage takes on a dark green hue, and in the fall - yellow or copper.

The fruits of the European tree are nuts that look very similar to acorns. From the outside, they are covered with the same hard capsule. It is quite possible to grow a new plant from the seeds.

Planting and leaving

Like any other wood species, European beech requires proper planting and maintenance. Let's take a look at how to act correctly.


For planting, you need to choose only healthy seedlings. The plant needs to be inspected for mold, putrefactive areas and other defects. It is advisable to buy seedlings from specialized nurseries.

To plant a beautiful tree, you should choose a well-lit and open area. The plant can develop in partial shade conditions. When planting, it is important to take into account the fact that the tree grows over time. At the preparatory stage, the soil must be dug up and fed using rotted compost.


It is necessary to prepare a hole for planting a tree. Then it should be left for 2-3 weeks. During this time, shrinkage will occur. If you plant a tree right away, the soil will sink and can harm it.

It is necessary to plant European beech in autumn, as soon as the fall of the leaves is completed. It is recommended to choose the period from October to November. 2-3 weeks before the arrival of cold weather, the seedling will have time to adapt to new conditions for it.

Consider how to plant a beech.

First, they dig a hole with a size of 1x1 m. The depth parameter will depend on the size of the tree rhizomes.

If the work is carried out in clay type soil, a layer of expanded clay or fine gravel should be placed on the bottom... The layer should be at least 5 cm.

To fill the excavated pit, you will need mix compost and fertile soil.

Part of the substrate is sent to the pit. Then a whole bucket of water is poured into it.

As soon as the process of soil shrinkage is completed, the plant will need to be taken out of the temporary container with the utmost care and transplanted into the finished pit.

The next step will need drive in the support stake.

Beech rhizomes need cover with soil.

Then soil thoroughly compact and watered well.

Beech tie up to the support part.

There are several features of European beech care.

The tree does not tolerate drought very well. It is necessary to water it as the soil dries up. You need to use warm and settled water for irrigation.

Watering should be done in the morning or evening. Water should be poured only into the trunk circle.

In the spring, the beech must be fed with mineral fertilizers.... In the autumn season, top dressing is duplicated.

You can water the tree less often if you mulch.... Peat or humus is poured into the trunk circle. So that the water does not stagnate, after watering, you need to loosen it to a depth of 15-20 cm.

Beech needs sanitary pruning... It is necessary to remove old and dry branches. This should be done in early spring or late autumn. Shoots should also be cut.

It is advisable to cover the European beech for the winter... First, it is well watered. The trunk circle is sprinkled with a layer of humus or peat. The thickness of the sprinkling layer should be 10-15 cm.

A frame is required above the European beech... Then a woven fabric is attached to it.


The easiest way to grow European beech is from seed. The collected seeds are first dried well, and then kept in cold conditions. Next, the seeds are moved into moistened sand for a couple of months. As soon as the first shoots break through, they are transferred to fertile soil.

And also, to get seedlings, you can use cuttings and cuttings. If these are cuttings, then it will be necessary to cut the shoots, which will then be kept cool. In spring, cuttings are germinated in soil conditions. Layers must be taken from the mother tree. Then they are bent to the ground. As soon as the layers take root and let the roots go, they are deposited.

Diseases and pests

Handsome European beech is prone to serious fungal diseases. In the second half of summer, significant damage to the tree can be caused by a dangerous powdery mildew... The main symptom of this ailment is the drying out of the foliage. A separate category of fungi can provoke decay of European beech wood.

If there is a too sharp drop in temperature against the background of an increased level of humidity, then characteristic damage may appear on the trunks. This is how development takes place frosty crayfish... Beech fruits can be affected by either green or black mold. Because of this, the seeds lose their previous germination.

The caterpillars of silkworms, leafworms, moths, sickle-winged moths, and golden-tails can cause considerable harm to the European beech. These parasites actively devour the foliage of the tree, because of which it is greatly weakened. There are also types of insects that can seriously harm the young leaves of the European beech, as well as its buds and buds.

Pests that feed on wood can seriously compromise tree health. We are talking about such parasites:

Abstract of a scientific article on biological sciences, the author of the scientific work is Nikolai Borisovich Konyukhov

Second edition. First publication: Konyukhov N.B. 1995. Rare and migratory birds of the Chukotka Peninsula // Ornithology 26: 186-188.

Text of the scientific work on the topic "Rare and migratory birds of the Chukotka Peninsula"

Russian Ornithological Journal 2015, Volume 24, Express issue 1172: 2717-2720

Rare and vagrant birds of the Chukotka Peninsula

Second edition. First published in 1995 *

Most of the observations were carried out in 1987-1990 in the vicinity of the village of Sireniki. It should be noted that the beginning of spring in 1988 was normal, in 1989 - very late, and 1990 - early. In 1989, by the second half of May, the beginning of the arrival of land birds, the snow had just started to melt on the slopes of the southern exposure. It was here that the arriving birds concentrated. In 1990, most of the coastal area had been cleared of snow by the beginning of May. Permanent observations in the area of ​​the village of Sireniki were carried out: May 19 - June 3, 1988, March 21 - May 24 and September 16 - October 9, 1989 and May 20-27, and September 18 - October 20, 1900. Meetings only with birds unusual for coastal biotopes, or species new to the eastern part of the Chukchi Peninsula.

Whistle teal Anas crecca crecca, A. c. carolinensis. Both subspecies of whistle teal were found in 1989 in the village of Sireniki. The birds kept at the fur farm, the only place where the snow had thawed by the time of their arrival. The first A. s. crecca appeared on May 19, and a pair of A. s. carolinensis - May 24. It should be noted that the birds of these two subspecies have always fed separately from each other. American subspecies A. s. carolinensis occurs not for the first time in the area of ​​the Sireniki village (Konyukhov and Zubakin 1988).

Golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos. A young bird hovering over the hills of Cape Yagnochymlo was recorded on 15 May 1989.

Fifi Tringa glareola. 5 individuals of this species were fed daily on May 19-24, 1989 under the sheds of the fur farm.

Hermit snail Tringa solitaria. A single snail of this species was sighted on June 1, 1988 at the mouth of the Sirenik-Keivuk River. He was scared from the shore. The dark top of the bird, including the upper tail, and the white speck on the wings do not allow doubting the species belonging of this individual.

American ash snail Heteroscelus incanus. Solitary individuals of this species are constantly found in May-June and August-September on the coast with rock outcrops - a biotope characterized by

* Konyukhov N.B. 1995. Rare and migratory birds of the Chukotka Peninsula // Ornithology 26: 186-188.

Rus. ornithol. zhurn. 2015. Volume 24. Express Edition No. 1172 2717

ny for this species during migrations. On September 6, 1990, a young feeding bird was encountered at the mouth of the Etkagyrga River. It is likely that this species breeds on the Chukchi Peninsula.

Carrier Actitis sp. Two carriers feeding on the fur farm met from May 19 to May 24, 1989. There is no need to speak about the species of these birds, since the winter dress of the spotted carrier A. maculata, already noted in Chukotka (Tomkovich, Sorokin 1983), is very similar to the summer dress of an ordinary carrier A . hypoleucos.

Turukhtan Philomachus pugnax. Met only once (June 2, 1988) in a swampy herbaceous area at the mouth of the Sirenik-Keivuk River. They were two males, feeding here all day.

Great Sandpiper Calidris tenuirostris. Four feeding sandpipers were found on June 2, 1988 on the outskirts of Sireniki village on sod slopes.

Snipe Gallinago gallinago. At least 3 birds fed on the fur farm and adjacent thawed areas of grassy slopes. The first bird was seen on May 19, 1989.

Tahitian curlew Numenius tahitensis. Met on May 21, 1989 in the area of ​​a fur farm. The bird had colored rings, indicating that it was a female tagged in 1988 in the Yukon Delta. This is the first meeting of a Tahitian curlew on the territory of our country.

Medium curlew Numenius phaeopus. Recorded on May 24, 1989 in the village of Sireniki on a herbaceous slope with southern exposure.

Small bode Limosa lapponica. Met on May 21, 1989 at a fur farm. The bird was feeding on the bog overgrown with grasses throughout the day.

White owl Nyctea scandiaca. A female sitting on an ice floe was encountered at sea on March 31, 1989, approximately 1 km from the coast. In August-September of the same year, 3-4 snowy owls constantly lived and hunted colonies of auklets at Cape Ulyakhpen. Such uncharacteristic encounters of this species on the southern coast of the peninsula in summer were caused by depression of mouse-like rodents in its northern parts.

Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus. On May 18 and 21, 1989, in the village of Sireniki, single and, apparently, migratory short-eared owls were encountered.

Ocher hummingbird Selasphorus rufus. Male in breeding plumage met 12 August 1987 at the northern tip of Ratmanov Island. The first meeting of this species in our country took place here (Tomkovich, Sorokin 1983).

Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica. One bird was sighted on May 20, 1990 in the village of Sireniki. The short-term observation did not allow to establish the subspecies belonging of this individual.

White-fronted swallow Hirundo [Petrochelidon] pyrronota. Met in the village of Sireniki on June 15, 1989.

Urban swallow Delichon urbica. A single bird was feeding over the colony of auklets during the afternoon of August 12, 1989. The nearest colonies of this species are in the city of Anadyr. In 1985, one of them had 7 and the other had 3 nests.

Red-headed arboretum Vermivora celata. Met on September 21, 1989 on the outskirts of Sireniki village. This is the first meeting of this species in the country.

Lesser Wilsonia Wilsonia pusilla. The female of this species was feeding in the colony of auklets on September 4, 1989. It was met in our country for the first time.

Insular Bunting Plectrophenax hyperboreus. Met in the village of Sireniki in 1989. The first birds were found on April 2 on the territory of the fur farm. Subsequently, island snow buntings, both males and females, constantly met in the village until May 13. Most of the island snow buntings were recorded in late April - early May - 11 individuals. Among these birds there were both completely faded individuals and those in molting. This made it possible to find out that with an approximately constant number of birds in the village, their individual composition changes, i.e. some birds fly away, and new ones come to replace them. On May 13, I observed the departure of two island snow buntings to their nesting sites on the island of St. Matthew. They were first accompanied by a male snow bunting P. nivalis. The birds, gaining altitude, flew into the open sea. After the birds were above the sea, at some distance from the coast, the common bunting returned, and the island birds, all gaining height, disappeared from view. This species constantly hibernates along the southern and, probably, the eastern coast of the peninsula, as sea hunters of the Sireniki village told that island snow buntings are found in the village every year. The location of wintering grounds so strange for land birds to the north of the nesting sites is apparently caused by the direction of the prevailing winds. In May, northern winds still blow, helping island snow buntings to reach their nesting sites, and in autumn, southern winds, bringing them to wintering. This species was found on the territory of our country for the first time.

Variegated oatmeal Passerella iliaca. Sighted in the village of Sireniki twice: June 1, 1988 and October 2, 1990. In both cases, the birds adhered to the slopes overgrown with wormwood. On September 18, 1990, two birds were feeding in the wormwood thickets in the auklet colony of the Ulyakhpen Cape.

Yellow-headed [black-browed] zonotrichia Zonotrichia atricapilla. On June 26, 1988, in the colony of auklets at Cape Ulyakhpen, a male occupied the territory and sang there throughout the day. Molted males met on September 21, 1989 in the village of Sireniki and on September 3, 1990 in a colony of auklets; on September 17 and 18, 1990, a young bird of this species was encountered there.

White-browed zonotrichia Zonotrichia leucophrys. Four young birds were met on September 21, 1989 on a slope overgrown with wormwood in the village of Sireniki.

Junco gray Junco hyemalis. The male was feeding on the road in the village of Sireniki on September 21, 1989.

Bush Bunting Passerculus sandwichensis. Met on September 21, 1989 in the village of Sireniki.

Wood Sparrow Bunting Spizella arborea. Met on September 21, 1989 in the village of Sireniki.

Rusty corpse Euphagus carolinus. A single male in autumn plumage was feeding throughout the entire day of September 21, 1989 throughout the village of Sireniki.

Yurok Fringilla montifringilla. On June 1, 1988, in the village of Sireniki, a female Yurka was encountered on a slope overgrown with wormwood.On October 2, 1990, two pairs of birds of this species were sighted at the same site.

If we compare data from faunistic publications on the Chukchi Peninsula with data on the fauna of Alaska (Portenko 1972, 1973, Tomkovich, Sorokin 1983, Konyukhov, Zubakin 1988, Gabrielson, Lincoln 1959, Johnson, Herter 1989), then we can see that a number of species of the American fauna can nest here. These include variegated and arboreal passerine buntings, white-browed and black-browed zonotrichia, the nesting biotope of which is shrubs. These species appear on the coast in spring and autumn. Around the same time bluethroats Luscinia svecica and Talovan Phylloscopus boralis, nesting in Alaska, migrate here.

Konyukhov N.B., Zubakin V.A. (1988) 2011. Towards the avifauna of Eastern Chukotka // Rus. ornithol. zhurn. 20 (654): 910-913. Portenko L.A. 1972. Birds of the Chukotka Peninsula and Wrangel Island. L., 1: 1-423. Portenko L.A. 1973. Birds of the Chukchi Peninsula and Wrangel Island. L., 2: 1-324. Tomkovich PS, Sorokin AG 1983. Bird fauna of Eastern Chukotka // Tr. Zool. museum


Adults, or adults, are large moths. Females are larger than males. The wingspan of females reaches seven centimeters, in males - five centimeters. The wings are narrow, with a beveled anterior margin. The forewings are whitish, along the veins there are many angular dark purple spots. The hind wings are translucent, densely covered with small spots of dark purple color. The abdomen is black, segmented; the posterior margin of each segment is covered with white thin scales. The dorsum is white, with six paired dark spots. In the female, the antennae are filiform, and in the male, the antennae are feathery from the base to the middle.

Life cycle

The life cycle of this butterfly lasts almost two years. Adult butterflies begin to emerge from pupae in mid-June.

Females do not feed, are inactive, move only in search of places for laying.

Males fly after females within the crown of the tree. Butterfly years and egg laying lasts from June to August, with a peak in mid-July. One female is capable of laying up to two thousand eggs. Each female makes several clutches of eggs, 50-200 eggs in each clutch. The fertilized female crawls along the branches in the evenings, feeling them with her ovipositor. Pest butterflies lay their eggs in various depressions in the tree, usually on dead branches. Eggs can be found near the kidneys, in cracks in the bark, and sometimes right on the ground. After oviposition, the female dies.

Embryonic development lasts 1.5 - 2 weeks. All larvae emerge from the clutch at the same time. Caterpillars creep up the tree and hang on short cobwebs. With the first gust of wind, the small caterpillars break away from the branches and are carried to another tree. This is how this species spreads.


First, the caterpillars bite into the cuttings of the leaves, then into the young shoots. The top of the shoot dries up, and the caterpillar passes into the deeper layers of the wood, into two-, three-year branches, where it hibernates. The next year, the larvae of the corrosive arboretum continue to feed on trees, but move into thick old branches, and then into the trunk.

Caterpillars become active after the average daily temperature exceeds 10 degrees above zero. In the second year of life, they eat into the core of the tree to a depth of about 10 centimeters and make a single stroke in the wood, directed upwards.

Caterpillars hibernate a second time, and pupate in May or early summer. Pupation takes place right inside the wood, closer to the top, and the cocoon is made from tree stubs. The corneous arboreal pupa is dark brown in color, cylindrical in shape and has a horn-like process, reaching a length of 30 millimeters. Pupae develop for about two months. The butterflies that emerged from the pupae lay eggs, and the life cycle repeats.

Harm to plants

Corrosive arboreal larvae damage many species of deciduous trees. Ash and other forest trees in the field-protective plantations of the steppes and in parks, as well as practically all fruit crops, suffer from these caterpillars. These pests are especially dangerous in the steppe arid zone.

You can find out that a tree caterpillar has settled inside the tree by looking at a small pile of sawdust-like, semi-digested pieces of rusty-red wood lying next to the trunk.

This is the excrement of the caterpillar, which from time to time pushes out of the course down, and then closes the hole in the course with cobwebs and rises up again. On the skeletal branches located above the pile, there is a hole in the course. It is either covered with a spider web, or there is already a pupa or a shell from it. The presence of corrosive arboreal caterpillars is also indicated by the dying off of young shoots, where the larvae of the first year of life settled.

With their moves, the caterpillars disrupt the movement of sap inside the tree. Infected trees get sick, and branches sometimes break off even from a weak wind.

Meadow moth caterpillars can destroy crops by more than 50%.

The Japanese rhinoceros beetle is a very beautiful and rare insect. You will find a detailed description in this article.

The odorant woodworm caterpillar is one of the largest caterpillars. How this insect looks like, see this link

How to deal with insects

If the defeat is not massive, then individual pests can be dealt with. In the tracks of the caterpillars, insecticide solutions, for example, chlorophos solution (10 g are taken for 1 liter of water), are injected using a rubber bulb or a sprayer.

You can also push cotton balls soaked in gasoline into it. After the introduction of a tampon or solution, the hole is covered with clay. In addition, from the end of July to the end of September, young shoots should be examined, and those that show characteristic signs of caterpillar damage should be removed and burned.

If arboreal caterpillars are found in large numbers, then after harvesting the trees can be sprayed with a solution of chlorophos. Several branches should be sprayed first to check if such a concentration of chlorophos causes a burn.

Spraying with insecticides before flowering helps. In addition, if you fight with the second generation of caterpillars of the codling moth with the help of insecticides, at this time the caterpillars of the corrosive arboretum also partially die. Biological pesticides are also used.

Lifestyle and habitat

These birds inhabit almost the entire planet, except for the polar regions. Slavki live wherever there are dense bushes, shady thickets and forests. Some of them willingly settle in abandoned parks and gardens.

Warbler's life is not in sight, it is hidden from prying eyes by dense vegetation. You don't often see them in open space or on the ground. Agile and businesslike, tireless and cheerful, they scurry with dexterous agility through the tangled thickets. This green "chaos" serves them as housing, a dining room, and a "nursery."

These birds are active during the day, they often rest at night. They rarely stay in groups, only on long flights. Mostly they live in pairs or singly. Usually males sing, but sometimes females also surprise with singing. They are the skillful imitators.

Warbler bird molts twice a year, at the beginning of March and at the end of October. If the bird is migratory, molt occurs just before returning from wintering and closer to flying south. After molting, the plumage becomes brighter.

All warblers living in the temperate zone and in the north are migratory. Most of them appear from wintering only in April to start nesting and raising offspring.

The warbler bird in your home can bring a lot of joy, it quickly takes root. At first, you can cover it with something translucent, so as not to frighten, and then it adapts and begins to sing. It is preferable to choose a rectangular cage or place it in an aviary.

However, it is best to keep her apart from other birds, she is humble and may be attacked. The cage needs perches, drinkers, baths and feeders. If you have an open-air cage, add plants that the songstress can build a nest on over time.

Feeding - insects, ant eggs, small bugs, mealworms. And also small berries. You can add a fine grain mixture. Keep the temperature at least 18 ºC, birds love warmth and are afraid of drafts.