Bird Families

Description of the Wren from the Red Book


Short-billed fawn - Brachyramphus Brachyramphus Vigors, 1829

Rarity category: 3 is a rare species.

Spread: Not enough clarified. North-East Russia: the coast of the Chukotka Peninsula and the Arctic coast to the strait. Long and Fr. Wrangel [1-4], north-east. coast of the Sea of ​​Okhotsk [5,6] and east. the coast of Kamchatka. Nesting has been proven for the Kolyuchinskaya Bay region. Young birds were observed on the island. Wrangel, at Cape Schmidt and in the Karaginskaya Bay. During the breeding season, the species was found in the hall. Cross, Korf and Babushkin [5,9,10], on the Olyutorsky coast, at about. Karaginsky and in the Kronotsky hall. ... On the Kuril Islands, the only registration at about. Paramushir. In winter, it occurs off the coast of Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands. Outside of Russia lives in the West. and south. Alaska, Aleutian and Diomede Islands.

Habitat: Breeds in isolated pairs on rocky mountain slopes above the forest border at an altitude of 230-1070 m above sea level, sometimes at a great distance (up to 75 km) from the sea coast [1,14,15]. During the breeding season, it stays in the coastal regions of the sea. Three nests found in Russia (June-July) contained clutches with one egg. One was found in the southern loaches. parts of the Kolyma Ridge. 30 km from the sea at an altitude of 700 m above sea level , another in Chukotka, 50 km from the village. Providence on a rocky slope of a hill 6 km from the sea, the third - to the north-east. the coast of Kamchatka on the slope of Tavuvnan without vegetation near the river Kichiga is 5 km from the sea. A nest is a small depression in the stones or a flat area covered with fine gravel, mostly without lining [1,7,14,15]. Reproductive biology is poorly understood. Both parents feed the chick, bringing one fish each time. It leaves the nest on its own at the age of 30 days. The nest can be used next year. Wintering at the south. On the coast of Chukotka, short-billed fawn were found in April-May in the Sirenikovskaya polynya, which does not freeze throughout the winter; the birds kept among the broken ice.

Number: Alaska is home to 25,000-100,000 birds. There is practically no information on the number of this species in Russia. During the summer census of seabirds on the Arctic coast northeast. Russia, from Chaunskaya to Kolyuchinskaya Bay, the highest concentration of these birds (30 individuals) was found in the strait. Long and in the adjacent waters and 6 birds - in the Kolyuchinskaya Bay. Off the coasts of the east. Chukotka from Mechigmensky hall. to Tkachen Bay during the nesting period, 100 birds were recorded in 1985, 27 in 1987, 107 birds in 1991. The state of the nesting districts is safe - hard-to-reach, little-visited places. Pollution of sea waters has a negative impact. After the Exxon Valdis tanker accident and the oil spill, a significant number of short-billed fawn died. Birds die, falling into flowing nets.

Security: Included in the Appendix of the agreement concluded between Russia and the United States on the protection of migratory birds. Protected in the reserves of Wrangel Island and Magadansky. Special surveys are required to clarify the breeding area and estimate the abundance. It is necessary to prevent the pollution of sea waters by oil products, to implement the World Moratorium on fishing with large-mesh smooth nets in the open sea.

A source: 1. Tomkovich, Sorokin, 1983, 2. Konyukhov, 1992, 3. Kondratyev, 1986, 4. Velizhanin, 1965, 5. Kishchinsky, 1968a, 6. Yakhontov, 1979, 7. Smetanin, 1992, 8. Sudilovskaya, 1978, 9. Kozlova, 1957, 10. Kishchinsky, 1980, 11. Gerasimov, 1979, 12. Stenchenko, 1975, 13. Yam

Description of the bird

The only representative of the Krapivnikov family from the Sparrow-like family. The Latin name sounds menacing - Troglodytidae, which means "living in a cave." The species is very aptly nicknamed the nut, the root plant for the characteristic features of the external appearance.

What does it look like

Small European bird by weight is twice lighter than a sparrow - only 8-12 g. Length - 9-11 cm. Wingspan - 15-17 cm. The body is dense. The head is large, round. The thin elongated beak is slightly bent downward. A disproportionately short tail is often perky upturned. The plumage is soft, fluffy.

Males and females are of the same color - the top is rusty red, and the bottom is grayish brown. Above the eye there is an indistinct light stripe. On the body there are transverse dark streaks. The juveniles have light chestnut feathers on their heads with a dark border - the main difference from adult animals.

Of all the subspecies differing in morphological characteristics, the house wren is the closest species. The upper part of his body is brown in color, the lower one is of a nut shade.

Character and lifestyle

They live in a closed, isolated - one by one, or in pairs. The birds strictly adhere to the chosen terrain. The males are territorial. With voiced, energetic, slightly crackling singing, they mark their boundaries, driving away unwanted competitors.

At night they gather in small flocks, choosing secluded corners for a joint overnight: dense bushes, windbreaks, shallow earthen burrows. To protect themselves from the cold, they cuddle together, forming a small circle.

Birdies behave very secretively, avoid open spaces, therefore they fly little and reluctantly.

What eats

The main menu consists of insects, spiders, molluscs, crustaceans, invertebrates (caterpillars, beetles, earwigs, grasshoppers, snails, woodlice, millipedes). They seek out food near the surface of the earth, checking mainly damp places: weeds, heaps of brushwood, upturned roots, fallen trunks.

In autumn, with a lack of animal food, birds feed on fruits of berries, plant seeds. Part of the population even accepts algae.

In winter they keep near non-freezing water bodies, catch tadpoles or small fish.

Where dwells

Widely distributed in Eurasia, Western Europe, North America, North Africa. They do not inhabit the European and Asian taiga, steppes and deserts of Russia, and in the south of the country they are found only in winter. In most of the range, the common species predominates.

They live in humid mountainous, coniferous, deciduous, mixed forests. Less often they inhabit treeless areas - plains or rocks. A favorite nesting place is nettle thickets. It is important to have dead wood and forest debris in order to hide from predators.

The family's homeland is the North American continent. Bird watchers believe that real wrens, together with their relatives, flew to Eurasia through the Bering Strait.


From wintering, males are the first to arrive. And, like real men, they build nests. Usually this is the first half of April - the end of May. During this period, the songs sound exceptionally louder, so the gentleman beckons the lady.

The structure looks like a spherical or elongated coconut. Building materials are thin spruce branches, green moss, dry blades of grass, leaves. As a rule, married couples form before the dwelling is completed. The corner you like is lined with down and feathers.

On the nesting site, from 5 to 12 buildings are erected, but only one of them will be chosen by the female.

Within two weeks, the young mother incubates a clutch of 4-7 white eggs with brownish-red spots, the average size of which is 16x12 mm. Both parents feed helpless cubs.

They bring food only to hatched chicks 70-180 times per day, and to 14-day-old ones - 300-500 times. Fledglings leave for 15-16 days. Puberty occurs in a year.

Natural enemies

In the wild, wrens rarely have a lifespan of more than four years. They are hunted by birds of prey, martens, vipers. Jays destroy nests. With a suspicious noise, sensing danger, the birds hide, not making the slightest sound.

A ground enemy seen not far from the nesting site is pursued, driving away with a loud crash. If a threat is impending, they instantly fly away from the nest 5-6 meters to the nearest shelter.


Most passerines are sedentary species. They hibernate near ice-free rivers, springs, springs. They feed on invertebrates, roots of aquatic plants, which are sought out in shallow waters. Mostly old individuals remain, leading a solitary lifestyle.

Birds nesting in the northern regions migrate to more favorable winter conditions. Preparations for departure begin in the second half of August - early September. Representatives of the species concentrate outside the forest (lake shores, wastelands).

Wren in the Red Book

There is no critical decrease in the population, but vulnerable subspecies are included in the list of rare, endangered animals.

The main causes of extinction

The closest relatives of wrens are on the verge of extinction. This is due to environmental factors. The decline in species is directly related to destructive habitat conditions and a lack of nesting sites.

Current population situation

In general, the number of wrens does not fluctuate significantly. The following subspecies are listed in the Red Book:

  • Antyoksky shrub - inhabits the South American dry forests,
  • Cuban - lives only in swampy areas overgrown with sword-grass,
  • Commander - Kamchatka Red Book bird inhabiting the Commanders,
  • New Zealand - lives in New Zealand,
  • Slender-billed - found only in mountain forests with limestone rocks,
  • Large Short-billed - breeds in South America, primarily in Colombia.

According to the scientific classification, the extinct species belong to the New Zealand genus - Shrub, as well as Stephen shrub.

Do I need to take measures to protect

Forestry sanitation reduces the number of nesting sites. Therefore, it is important to provide protective breeding grounds for animals.

Biologist-researcher Vladimir Borisovich Zimin proposes to prepare special plexuses of coniferous branches for nesting pairs.

Interesting facts about the bird

  1. A distinctive feature of the species is a strong voice. Singing reaches a volume of 90 dB. This is equivalent to a working vacuum cleaner or a moving tram. Multicolored trills last 5-6 seconds. Their flooded songs with a frequency of 4000-9000 Hz can be heard at a distance of 500 meters.
  2. Sex cannot be determined by color. During the breeding season, females develop a hedgehog patch, and the cloacal protrusion increases. Males do not incubate brood. Also, the male differs from the female in habits. The males are more active, emit many sounds, while the females are more secretive, singing extremely rarely.
  3. Males are unusually polygamous. While their companion is evaporating offspring, they calmly look for a new pair for themselves.
  4. The image of this tiny bird adorned the British farthing, minted from 1937 to 1956.
  5. Ancient Celts, Welsh considered the bird sacred. Until now, she is revered in many European states: England, Ireland, Iceland. Wren is a frequent character in folklore and literary works.

There are still questions about Wren or have something to add? Then write to us about it in the comments, this will make the material more useful, complete and accurate.

Ⓘ Slavic Tyrants

  • Red-brown warbler Phylloscartes superciliaris P.L. Sclater et Salvin, 1868
  • Phylloscartes beckeri Gonzaga et Pacheco, 1995
  • Phylloscartes venezuelanus Berlepsch, 1907
  • Phylloscartes eximius Temminck, 1822
  • Black-fronted warbler Phylloscartes nigrifrons Salvin et Godman, 1884
  • Brown warbler Phylloscartes chapmani Gilliard, 1940
  • Phylloscartes poecilotis P.L. Sclater, 1862
  • Yellow-fronted warbler Phylloscartes paulistus Ihering et Ihering, 1907
  • Phylloscartes sylviolus Cabanis et Heine, 1859
  • Phylloscartes gualaquizae P.L. Sclater, 1887
  • Surinamese Warbler Phylloscartes virescens Todd, 1925
  • Golden-eyed warbler Phylloscartes oustaleti P.L. Sclater, 1887
  • Phylloscartes flaviventris Hartert, 1897
  • Phylloscartes ceciliae Teixeira, 1987
  • Phylloscartes kronei Willis et Oniki, 1992
  • Pied-breasted warbler Phylloscartes ventralis Temminck, 1824
  • Phylloscartes orbitalis Cabanis, 1873
  • Red-headed warbler Phylloscartes roquettei Snethlage, 1928
  • Phylloscartes lanyoni G.R. Graves, 1988
  • Phylloscartes ophthalmicus Taczanowski, 1874
  • Phylloscartes parkeri Fitzpatrick et Stotz, 1997
  • White-eyed warbler Phylloscartes difficiles Ihering et Ihering, 1907
  • Panamanian Warbler Phylloscartes flavovirens Lawrence, 1862

Article source:

Tyrannous Flycatchers Tyrannidae LifeCatalog.

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Johann Chudi 1818 1889 and South American Bird Collections.

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And here is another kind of tyrant. This time it is the yellow-capped earth tyrant Muscisaxicola flavinucha. It is called in English. Passeriformes: Passerines. Gonzaga Luiz Pedreira, Pacheco Jose Fernando A new species of warbler Phylloscartes Tyrannidae from the mountains of southern Baia, Brazil. A new species of. The word SLAVIC What is SLAVIC? Word meanings. Tyrannosaurus is a genus of passerine birds from the Tyrannova family. Screaming passerines Descriptions and photos of animals. Right in the middle of the concert to Slavka, his relatives just dumped to the dacha. Jose was a local tyrant and gradually tried.

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Crested tit tyrant post pikabushnik ikrok. Comments 3, save 1. Join the discussion or. Pdf 33.3 MB Birds of the Yaroslavl Region. Navigation bar. Home Genus Tyrannosaurus Phylloscartes. 15 January 2018 Comments. Genus Tyrannosaurus Phylloscartes.Crested Tit Tyrant Odnoklassniki. Genus Brown mouse tyrants Phaeomyias. Genus Phelpsia Phelpsia. Tyranna's genus Phyllomyias crumbs. Genus Tyrannosaurus Phylloscartes.

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It is indeed a tyrant, a member of the Tyrannidae family. 159 1154 Chestnut backed Antbird. Genus Tyrannosaurus Phylloscartes. Brown-headed warbler Phylloscartes chapmani Gilliard, 1940 White-eyed warbler Phylloscartes difficiles Ihering et Ihering, 1907. Scale-crested tyrant grenadier: 10 thousand images found. Gray-headed pyprum tyrant Mionectes rufiventris. In this photo: undefined. Be the first to post a comment on. Phylloscartes is What is Phylloscartes ?. Maybe write to Slavka Sokolov, confide? the same Pol Pot, the same Milosevic. These are tyrants, they can be curbed.

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Birds of Crimea

  • Tags
  • Birds starting with the letter T
Latin name:To be clarified
English name:To be specified
A type:Chordates
Genus:To be specified
Body length:13 cm
Wing length:7 cm
Wingspan:11-12 cm
Weight:30-40 g
  • 1 Description of the bird
  • 2 Nutritional features of thymelia
  • 3 Distribution in nature
  • 4 Migratory or wintering
  • 5 Types of thymelia
    • 5.1 Banded thymelia
    • 5.2 Griffon Thymelia
    • 5.3 Blue-headed Thymelia
    • 5.4 Thymelia
    • 5.5 Thymelia
  • 6 Male and female: the main differences
  • 7 Keeping thymelia at home
  • 8 Interesting Shrub Facts
  • 9 Singing Thymelia

Features of thymelia nutrition

All thymelia are absolutely unpretentious in their diet. Under natural conditions, birds include a wide variety of seeds, fruits, berries, insects and invertebrates in their diet. Only a few species of thymelia belong exclusively to insectivorous birds.

Distribution in nature

Representatives of the thimelium family are common in Asia, Africa, Oceania and Australia. Only one species - striped thymelia - is found in the territory of the CIS countries. The habitats of these birds are subtropics and tropics. Thymelia choose dense thickets for life, where they can easily hide. Strong legs and sharp claws help birds deftly climb trees and vines. Thymelia do not like to fly.

Migratory or wintering

Since the natural distribution area of ​​thymelia includes countries with a warm and humid climate, this species belongs to sedentary birds. In addition, thymelia fly little and are not used to long-term air travel.

Thymelia species

Thymelia are a very large family. Most of the over 200 species inhabit China and Southeast Asia. We only have striped thymelia.

Striped thymelia

A grayish-brown bird slightly larger than a sparrow. Her wings and cheeks are of a reddish-brown hue. The beak is sharp and short. Young individuals have yellowish plumage. But females practically do not differ from males.

White-headed thymelia

According to the name, this type of shrub is characterized by white or beige plumage on its head, often with a characteristic tuft. Lives in southeast Asia.

Blue-headed thymelia

It is an endangered and very rare species of thymelia found only in China. The area of ​​the range is about 300 km 2. The plumage color resembles a tit: a bright blue head passes into an olive back and a lemon-yellow belly. The wings are light blue, and there is a black "mask" around the eyes.

Thin-billed thymelia

The species, like the blue-headed thymelia, is classified as protected, but with minimal risk. The difference between these birds is their thin and long curved beak.


The species of thrushes thymelia has a huge variety of subspecies. In size, the birds are larger than striped thymelia, approaching the thrush. Painted in brown-ash tones.

Male and female: the main differences

Sexual dimorphism in thymelia varies considerably from species to species. In general, females are always slightly paler than males. Their color is mainly brown-brown and olive tones. Also, females are smaller than males in size.

Keeping thymelia at home

Thymelia are known as pets, primarily in their natural habitat. So, they are usually bred by residents of China, India, Vietnam. In our latitudes, these birds are quite rare, but if you wish, you can find thymelia.

The birds are usually housed one at a time in small cages. Since thymelia are not picky about their diet, they are excellent food for granivorous birds. These are seeds, grains, berries, and pieces of fruit. They also add insects to the diet.

There is no information on breeding thymelia at home. In nature, birds lay their eggs in late spring - early summer. One clutch contains up to 5 small greenish eggs, of which chicks hatch two weeks later. Both parents feed the kids.

Interesting facts about shrubs

  • Thymelia are very quick-witted and intelligent birds, they quickly get used to humans and become truly tame,
  • birds arrange their nests almost above the surface of the earth,
  • Thymelius is distinguished by their friendly character towards each other: they live in small flocks, and during the nesting period they are divided into pairs, in which both partners touchingly care for each other and clean each other's feathers, when a pair has chicks, they come to the rescue special birds "helpers" that feed babies.

Singing thymelia

Thymelia are songbirds, but they do not sing very much. At home, their voices are heard in the morning and evening. Whistling and crackling, buzzing sounds are melodiously intertwined in the songs of thymelia. For example, at first, a drawn-out "tu-ti-viu" sounds, and then a sharp "ji-ji". Thymelia are also very good at parodying other birds. It is for their talent that many songbird lovers value thymelia as mockingbirds.