Bird Families

On the biology of the collar moth Otus bakkamoena in the southeast of Primorye

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Appearance... The dorsal side is yellowish-brown with small dark cruciform specks, the ventral side is buffy with a thin transverse pattern and longitudinal streaks. On the neck there is a semilunar light spot ("collar"). The toes are feathered 1/3 of their length from the base.

Lifestyle... The collar moth inhabits deciduous forests. Sedentary, rare bird.

It feeds on insects, small birds and murine rodents. There is almost no information on biology.

Similar species... The scoop differs from other scoops by 1/3 of its toes and a lunar "collar".

Owl squad. Family of real owls. Collar scoop.

Abstract of a scientific article on biological sciences, the author of the scientific work is Shokhrin Valery Pavlinovich

Second edition. First publication: V.P. Shokhrin 2016. On the biology of the collar moth in the southeast of Primorye // Birds of prey of Northern Eurasia. Problems and adaptations in modern conditions: materials of the 7th International. conf. Working Group on Falconiformes and Owls of Northern Eurasia. Rostov-on-Don: 534-538.

Text of the scientific work on the topic "On the biology of the collar moth Otus bakkamoena in the southeast of Primorye"

one reported sighting of a solitary crested lark on the outskirts of Pskov on 4 February 2007 (Shemyakina 2010). In addition, a single bird kept in the winter of 1997/98 in Novgorod (Mishchenko 1998).

On October 31, 2010, I met a flock of 9 crested larks on the northern outskirts of the Dubrovy village (Novorzhevsky district of the Pskov region, on an asphalt site for agricultural machinery. The birds fed on the border of land and asphalt. These birds are well known to me from service in Azerbaijan and Chechnya, so There is no doubt about the correctness of the definition, and this is the only record of the crested lark in the area under consideration for many years of observations.

Bianki V.L. (1904) 2006. Crested Lark Galerida cristata in St. Petersburg

province // Rus. ornithol. zhurn. 15 (310): 170-173. Zarudny N.A. (1910) 2003. Birds of the Pskov province // Rus. ornithol. zhurn. 12 (239): 1119-1129.

T.V. Mishchenko 1998. Winter sighting of the crested lark Galerida cristata in Novgorod

// Rus. ornithol. zhurn. 7 (49): 26. Shemyakina O.A. 2010. Winter encounters of the crested lark Galerida cristata and the pike-bee Pinicola enucleator in the city of Pskov // Rus. ornithol. zhurn. 19 (609): 1993-1994.

Russian Ornithological Journal 2016, Volume 25, Express issue 1375: 4756-4760

On the biology of the collar moth Otus bakkamoena in the southeast of Primorye

Second edition. First published in 2016 *

The collared moth Otus bakkamoena is one of the most common but little-studied owls in the Russian fauna. Information on the biology of this species is rather scarce and the data we have obtained can supplement them.

The population of the collar moth varies considerably from year to year and directly depends on the number of murine rodents, primarily the gray-red vole Clethrionomys rufocanus. In some habitats, birds are distributed with a density of 0.1 to 2.4 pairs per 1 km2 in different years. The share in the population in various forest stations is 9.5-57.1%, and on average in Southern Sikhote -

* Shokhrin V.P. 2016. On the biology of the collar moth in the southeast of Primorye // Birds of prey of Northern Eurasia. Problems and adaptations in modern conditions: materials of the 7th International. conf. Working Group on Falconiformes and Owls of Northern Eurasia. Rostov-on-Don: 534-538.

Alina - 10.9%. During the nesting period, the collar moth prefers valley multi-breed (mixed broad-leaved) and cedar-broad-leaved forests, but its share in the population of owls is greater in cedar-spruce and mixed small-leaved forests (Shokhrin 2013). Dwelling in forests of different formations, this moth more densely inhabits densely overgrown valleys of rivers and springs.

In 2010, 2011 and 2013, collar moths in the Kiev-ki valley nested in nest boxes, hung for the scaled merganser Mergus vdiashaShv. The nest boxes were of two types: 1) "pipe" - had the shape of a pipe open on top, the diameter of the octagonal bottom was 27 cm, the length was 85-95 cm, the bottom lining was sawdust, hung at an angle of 30-90 °. Was occupied 3 nest boxes, hung at an angle of 40-45 °. 2) "box" - had a square bottom with a side of 30 cm, a height of 65-80 cm and an oval entrance with a size of 8x12 cm, the lower edge of which was located at a height of 47-60 cm from the bottom, the lining was sawdust. Three buildings were occupied. All nest boxes were placed at a height of 7-9 m from the ground. Earlier nesting in nest boxes was noted in the Kievka valley in 1962-1965 (Polivanov et al. 1971) and in the Kedrovaya Pad nature reserve (Shibnev 1983).

At the nesting sites, the collar moth becomes noticeable in the second half of March, when the current males begin to register. By the end of March, the current is quite intense, especially in years of high numbers of murine rodents. The nesting period is extended. The earliest nest, in which the female incubated 1 egg, was found on April 11, and at the latest, with a clutch of 4 eggs, was started in the second half of May. Analyzing all the accumulated data, it can be stated that in most of the nests hatching occurs in May-June, and the hatching of the young in June-July (Polivanov et al. 1971, Pukinsky 1977, Shibnev 1983, Elsukov 2013, our data).

Complete clutches contained 4 (3 cases) and 6 eggs (1). Egg sizes (n = 12), mm: 37.9-39.4x30.1-32.4, on average 38.7 ± 0.14x31.5 ± 0.19. A nest was also found, in which there were 7 chicks aged from 1-2 days to 2 weeks. A brood of two poorly flying juveniles was encountered on June 5, 2012 on Petrov Island. In 2010, the ruin of nests (n = 2) by the mustelids MimieMae was noted.

The material on the feeding of the moths was collected during the nesting periods of 2010-2011. In 2010, 2 nesting litters and 44 pellets were found and analyzed, and in 2011 - 2 nesting litters, 59 birds and 94 pellets. During their analysis, 300 food items were obtained and analyzed.

While the female sits on the clutch, the male brings a lot of prey, which she folds around her. Up to 28 mouse-like rodents and other food items accumulate in the nest. With the appearance of chicks, the reserves disappear. Collar shovel nests are clean, pellets

the female either eats or endures chicks. Pellets and food debris begin to accumulate only when the chicks are already large (3-4 weeks) and occupy the entire nesting cavity.

More than 15 food items were found in the food spectrum of the collar moth. In both 2010 and 2011, the prey was dominated by mammals, among which the gray-red vole dominated, accounting for 61.0-63.8% of the diet. Other mammals were less common and were secondary, additional food in those years. Insects ranked second in the number of objects after mammals, followed by birds (Table 1).

Table 1. Nutritional spectrum of the collar moth in different years in the Kievka river valley

Catering facility 2010 2011 Total

Mammals, including: 75.4 84.0 246 82.0

Far Eastern vole Microtus fortis - 9.5 22 7.3

Red-backed vole Clethrionomys rufocanus 63.8 61.0 185 61.7

Wood mouse Apodemus peninsulae 1.4 3.0 8 2.7

Mouse Apodemus sp., Closer not detected 5.8 1.7 8 2.7

Mice of the genus Apodemus, total: 7.2 4.8 16 5.3

Little mouse Micromys minutus - 1.7 4 1.3

Shrew Sorex sp., Not closer identified 4.3 1.7 7 2.3

Great shrew Crocidura lasiura - 0.4 1 0.3

Birds, including: 8.7 6.0 20 6.7

Warbler Phylloscopus sp., Not closer defined - 1.3 3 1.0

Oatmeal Emberiza sp., Closer not defined - 1.3 3 1.0

Sparrow bird Passeriformes, closer not identified 8.7 1.7 10 3.3

Bird Aves, closer not identified - 1.7 4 1.3

Amphibians, including: - 1.7 4 1.3

Frog Rana sp., Closer not identified - 1.7 4 1.3

Insects, including: 15.9 8.3 30 10.0

Coleoptera beetle, closer not identified 5.8 1.3 7 2.3

Orthoptera Orthoptera, closer not defined 2.9 1.3 5 1.7

Lepidoptera Lepidoptera, not closer defined 7.2 5.7 18 6.0

Total objects: 69 231 300 100.0

Among the mouse-like rodents caught by the collar scoop, adults predominated. The birds were more likely to catch male Far Eastern voles and mice. Females predominated among the caught red-gray voles (Table 2).

In autumn, we repeatedly observed hunting owls in settlements and at gas stations, where they caught nocturnal lepidoptera near burning lanterns, often next to the needle-footed owl Ninox scutulata. In winter, scoops were observed 8 times in settlements. Two of them died of hunger, two were caught in barns and later

released. Collar moths hunted Passer montanus sparrows. In the pellets found, the remains of sparrows, field Apodemus agrarius, and house Mus musculus mice were identified.

Table 2. Sex and age composition of murine rodents in the prey of the collar moth in the Kievka valley

Rodent species Gender Age

in,%?,% Total ad,% sad,% Total

Clethrionomys rufocanus 40.7 59.3 27 75.0 25.0 44 Apodemus 66.7 33.3 3 80.0 20.0 5

Microtus fortis 62.5 37.5 16 68.2 31.8 22

Clethrionomys rufocanus 42.8 57.2 152 73.7 26.3 194

Apodemus 100.0 0.0 1 81.8 18.2 11

Table 3. Morphometric parameters of collar moths from the vicinity of the Lazovsky nature reserve

Minimum I Maximum I Average

Wing length, mm Tail length, mm Beak length, mm Tarsus length. Mm Weight, g

Wing length, mm Tail length, mm Beak length, mm Tarsus length, mm Weight, g

Wing length, mm Tail length, mm Beak length, mm Tarsus length, mm Weight, g

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    List of species

    The genus contains 50 species:

    • Otus scops
      - Scops owl
    • Otus gurneyi
      - Red-eared scoop
    • Otus sagittatus
      - White-fronted scoop
    • Otus rufescens
      - Reddish scoop
    • Otus icterorhynchus
      - Yellow-billed scoop
    • Otus ireneae
      - Kenyan scoop
    • Otus balli
      - Andaman scoop
    • Otus alfredi
      - Flores scoop
    • Otus spilocephalus
      - Spotted scoop
    • Otus brookii
      - Malay scoop
    • Otus angelinae
      - Javanese scoop
    • Otus mentawi
      - Philippine scoop
    • Otus bakkamoena
      - Collar scoop
    • Otus lettia
      - Collared Scarlet Owl
    • Otus semitorques
      - Japanese scoop
    • Otus lempiji
      - Sand Scoop
    • Otus fuliginosus
      - Palawan scoop
    • Otus megalotis
      - Scoop of Mayotte
    • Otus silvicola
      - Wallace Scoop
    • Otus mirus
      - Mindan scoop
    • Otus longicornis
      - Luzon mountain scoop
    • Otus mindorensis
      - Mindor scoop
    • Otus brucei
      - Desert Scoop
    • Otus senegalensis
      - African scoop
    • Otus sunia
      - Eastern scoop
    • Otus magicus
      - Moluccan scoop
    • Otus mantananensis
      - Sulawesian scoop
    • Otus elegans
      - Scoop Ryuuo
    • Otus manadensis
      - Indonesian scoop
    • Otus collari
      - Sangih Scoop
    • Otus beccarii
      - Scoop Beccari
    • Otus insularis
      - Seychelles scoop
    • Otus umbra
      - Simalurian scoop
    • Otus enganensis
      - Scoop Enggano
    • Otus alius
      - Nicobar scoop
    • Otus pembaensis
      - Scoop Pemba
    • Otus pauliani
      - Large Komos scoop
    • Otus capnodes
      - Anjouan scoop
    • Otus moheliensis
      - Scoop Mogeli
    • Otus mayottensis
      - Mountain forest scoop
    • Otus madagascariensis
      - Scoop Torotoroko
    • Otus rutilus
      - Madagascar scoop
    • Otus hartlaubi
      - Santomey scoop
    • Otus jolandae
      - Rinjan scoop
    • Otus sulaensis
    • Otus siaoensis
      - Scoop Xiao
    • Otus everetti
    • Otus nigrorum
    • Otus socotranus
    • Otus thilohoffmanni
      - Ceylon scoop

    Reproduction

    Winter moth butterflies begin to emerge most often in the second half of May. Females lay eggs one at a time or in clusters on various plants, mainly on weeds, as well as on the soil surface on plant debris. One female can lay 400 - 800 eggs, and under favorable conditions - in her entire life - up to 2000 eggs or more. After a week and a half, young caterpillars emerge from the eggs.

    First, they gnaw the leaves of those weeds on which they hatched. In the future, the grown caterpillars begin to feed on the underground parts of the stems of beets, perennial legumes, corn, winter crops, etc. Crawling out of the soil, the caterpillars gnaw tissue on the cuttings of tobacco leaves, makhorka, cotton, onions, potatoes, cabbage, etc. Caterpillars damage plants, gnawing holes in the leaves and gnawing the root collar of plants. It has been established that if there are several caterpillars of a winter moth per 1 square meter, then nothing may remain from the crops. The caterpillar grows for about a month. After five molts, the larvae develop into adult caterpillars.

    In the first half of July, the caterpillars burrow into the ground and turn into pupae. In the second half of July or at the beginning of August, butterflies of the second generation emerge from pupae.

    Caterpillars emerging from the eggs laid by butterflies of the second generation infect winter crops, sometimes causing them great harm. The caterpillar hibernates in the ground. In the spring, it moves closer to the soil surface, makes a cave in the ground and turns into a pupa in it. At the end of May, butterflies of the first generation fly out of the pupae.

    Thus, like the cabbage, the winter moth develops with complete transformation and gives in most regions of Ukraine for a year or two generations.

    An excerpt characterizing the Scoops (birds)

    “Yes, from Julie,” said the princess, looking timidly and smiling timidly. “I’ll skip two more letters, and read the third,” said the prince sternly, “I’m afraid you’re writing a lot of nonsense.” I'll read the third. - Read at least this, mon pere, [father,] - answered the princess, blushing even more and handing him the letter. “Third, I said, third,” the prince shouted shortly, pushing away the letter, and, leaning his elbows on the table, pushed the notebook with geometry drawings. - Well, madam, - the old man began, bending down close to his daughter over the notebook and placing one hand on the back of the chair on which the princess was sitting, so that the princess felt herself surrounded on all sides by that tobacco and senile pungent smell of her father, which she had known for so long ... - Well, madam, these triangles are similar, if you please, the angle abc ... The princess looked frightened at her father's shining eyes close to her, red spots shimmered over her face, and it was clear that she did not understand anything and was so afraid that fear would hinder her understand all further interpretations of the father, no matter how clear they are. Whether the teacher was to blame or the student was to blame, but every day the same thing was repeated: the princess's eyes were dim, she saw nothing, did not hear, she only felt the dry face of her strict father close to her, felt his breath and smell, and only thought about how she could leave the office as soon as possible and understand the problem in her own open space. The old man lost his temper: with a crash he pushed and pulled the chair in which he was sitting, made efforts to stay cool, and almost every time he got excited, scolded, and sometimes threw the notebook. The princess was mistaken in her answer. - Well, how can you not be stupid! - shouted the prince, pushing away the notebook and quickly turning away, but immediately got up, walked, touched the princess's hair with his hands and sat down again. He moved over and continued to interpret. “You can't, princess, you can't,” he said, when the princess, having taken and closed the notebook with the given lessons, was already preparing to leave, “mathematics is a great thing, my madam. And I don’t want you to be like our stupid ladies. Will endure falling in love. He patted her cheek with his hand. - The crap will jump out of my head. She wanted to go out, he stopped her with a gesture and took out a new uncut book from the high table. - Here's another Key of the Sacrament your Eloise is sending you. Religious. And I do not interfere in anyone's faith ... I looked. Take it. Well, go, go! He patted her on the shoulder and himself locked the door behind her. Princess Marya returned to her room with a sad, frightened expression that rarely left her and made her ugly, sickly face even more ugly, sat down at her writing desk, laden with miniature portraits and littered with notebooks and books. The princess was as disorderly as her father was decent. She put down the geometry notebook and eagerly opened the letter. The letter was from the princess's closest childhood friend, this friend was the same Julie Karagina, who was at the Rostovs' birthday: Julie wrote: “Chere et excellente amie, quelle chose terrible et effrayante que l’absence! J'ai beau me dire que la moitie de mon existence et de mon bonheur est en vous, que malgre la distance quinous separe, nos coeurs sont unis par des liens indissolubles, le mien se revolte contre la destinee, et je ne puis, malgre les plaisirs et les distractions qui m'entourent, vaincre une certaine tristesse cachee que je ressens au fond du coeur depuis notre separation. Pourquoi ne sommes nous pas reunies, comme cet ete dans votre grand cabinet sur le canape bleu, le canape a confidences? Pourquoi ne puis je, comme il y a trois mois, puiser de nouvelles forces morales dans votre regard si doux, si calme et si penetrant, regard que j'aimais tant et que je crois voir devant moi, quand je vous ecris. "

    Bird of the family of owls 7 letters crossword clue

    Large bird of the order of owls

    • Large night owl

    • Night bird of prey of the owl squad

    • w. bird baba, pelican? View of the scarecrow, owl. A fabulous, voracious, insatiable bird. A person who is insatiably greedy for food, or for wealth, differences, etc. with negation in general, means. denial, refusal, prohibition: lack, absence, without exclusivity, firm and general denial. There is not a speck of dust. Not a penny in the house. There is not a soul on the street. Not at all. No one came.I don’t want to. This has never happened. Do not ooh, do not dare ooh, niches, no gugu, be quiet. I won't let anyone smell below. Not a word, that is, I did not say, I will not say, do not speak, etc. Call everyone, whoever comes. Whatever it was, but the matter must be settled. Give it whatever it is. Does it anyhow. It doesn't matter wherever it goes. Anything could be recognized in one word, an adverb: whatever is, what is, what comes across, will happen, no matter what, the people say: whatever is, whatever, whatever is. Whatever is the best, the best. When several concepts are denied, it is repeated in a row: It is neither this nor that, nor the devil, nor the clown: neither fish, nor meat, nor shorn, nor shaved, nor out of a box, nor into a box. pronoun and adverb., nor forms new, negative pronouns and adverb. nowhere, no one, no one, no why, no way, never, etc. He puts him in anything, or does not put him. For no time at all, approx. soon, instantly, alive. Neither spirit, nothing. Nobody for me, novg. hard. not guessing, not knowing. I don't care about anything: there would be a ruff with a roll! No matter how it is, it will never be done. Whenever you have to die. This is nothing to me. Whatever further, it is not easier (it is better). Whatever be, let it be. Not a word about this (that is, I do not argue). Neither hammered nor flattened. Neither Misha nor Grisha. No dignity, no mana (Tatar, you, me). Neither yes nor no: neither there nor here, nor there nor from there, not ptru, not well, not this way, not that way, not that way. adv. denial no, no way, never, sometimes doubles, in the form of an oath, a vow, according to the Scriptures: Wake your word, she-she, no, no. Have you been here? "Neither, and did not fit." Let's go or something! "Neither, nor, and do not speak." Little Russian is always spoken instead of no. If the question is: can I borrow a book? answer with a prohibition neither, nor, then it can be in a union and an adverb, in the first case, it is implied: in no way, for nothing, in no case, not at all, in the second, this is the assurance that it is impossible, I will not give. Nibs, anything southern. with Little Russian, and in the West. the pronunciation of the nyaba, as if, as if, as if even, as if, perhaps, nothing. Niba never saw, pretends not to see

    Gnawing scoops

    Gnawing scoops.

    Order Lepidoptera (Butterflies) - Lepidoptera, Family Moths (Moths) - Noctuidae

    Winter moth (Agrotis segetum)

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