Bird Families

Genus Colletotrichum


The Khary-bulbul flower for many Azerbaijanis is a symbol not only of Shushi, but of the whole of Karabakh.

Beautiful, but rare - outside of Shushi, not so common - this flower looks like a nightingale sitting on a petal.

There are many legends about this flower. I will tell you one of them.

They say that in ancient times, when this world was saturated with magic and the real bordering on the magic, there lived one nightingale. He was in love with a flower. It was a wonderful flower of unprecedented beauty. But as beautiful were the petals of the flower, so were its thorns. There weren't many of them, but they were large.

The rumor about the love of a nightingale and a flower spread to the farthest lands. Their love was so beautiful. I learned about this love and the wind. Seeing the flower, he fell in love so much that he could no longer think of anything else but the beautiful petals of this flower.

But what kind of love can the wind have for a flower? The breeze may be refreshing, but strong gusts tore the trees down by their roots. But which of the lovers can control themselves, not let feelings prevail over themselves?

So it was with the wind - the more he loved, the harder it blew. For a fragile flower, the love of the wind was deadly. Often such feelings, especially unrequited ones, intoxicate the mind - only one feeling begins to govern our mind, our whole body. Beautiful and terrible at the same time. Love is beautiful in its purity, but it is too timid and can take root of uncontrolled desire, jealousy, anger and self-interest.

The wind wanted to separate the nightingale and the flower, wanted to humiliate him before the nightingale - to break it with its impulse and separate them forever. But no matter how much the wind blew, the flower did not break. The nightingale, who found out about the plans of the wind, came to the aid of his beloved. It flew up to the flower, became a support and did not allow it to break.

Then the wind began to blow harder and harder. Completely exhausted, he blew one last time. A powerful impulse crushed everything in its path. It would seem that the flower is about to die. In desperation, the nightingale clung to the flower so hard that its thorns pierced the nightingale.

The wind died down. The trouble was over, but at what cost? The animals ran to the flower to see what happened to it and could not believe their eyes! The flower was alive. As before, he stood gracefully in the field, and with him a nightingale, but he was breathless.

On that day, the two lovers became one. The nightingale clung to the flower so hard that it merged with it. And only crimson spots on the petals reminded of a sacrifice in the name of love.

So Khary-Bulbul was born.

One note worth making: the word "hari" has several meanings, one of which is "big". The legend means "khari tikyan" ("big thorn"). And "bulbul" is a "nightingale" in Azerbaijani.

Do you like the legend? Like and subscribe. If this material gets a lot of likes, then I will talk about other Azerbaijani (and indeed Caucasian) legends.

Do you know an interesting legend? Share it and I will write about it in one of the following articles.


Lodge - submerged, then erupting, usually quite flat, often light-colored at first, then in most cases darkening to dark brown or almost black. The bed is most often with pale brown or dark brown setae, developing along the periphery and in the center.

Conidiophores are elongated to varying degrees. Initially colorless, more often colored later.

Conidia are cylindrical or oblong, solitary, colored or colorless, unicellular.

Microsclerotia - black, round.

Marsupial stage - not established in some species, in others it belongs to the genus Glomerella .

<i> Colletotrichum </i> - Symptoms of anthracnose on cucumber

Symptoms of anthracnose on a cucumber

<i> Colletotrichum </i> - Symptoms of anthracnose on cucumber

Symptoms of anthracnose on a cucumber (causative agent Colletotrichum orbiculare):

1, 2 - development of phytopathogen on leaves

3 - on fruits after harvest

4 - part of the stem affected by anthracnose


Species of the genus Colletotrichum winter in the form of sclerotia, pseudopycnids, chlamydiospores and myceliums in the soil, on plant debris of affected plants, on glass, film and pycnidia structures.

On infected organs, fungi develop sporulation in the form of numerous pads, which disintegrate in concentric circles or merge into a continuous plaque. Under unfavorable conditions of development, black microsclerotia appear in the spots.

During the growing season, pathogens are spread by conidia during rains, irrigation and with condensation water, when sick plants come into contact with healthy ones, on workers' clothes, with spider mites and aphids. In greenhouses - with through ventilation.

Seeds collected from infected plants can be carriers of the infection. They are often the main source of the spread of pathogens, as they are able to retain them for 8 years. When the fungus hyphae penetrates the seeds before the formation of the pigment layer, the embryo is affected and the seeds completely lose their germination.

Mushrooms of the genus Colletotrichum can develop at temperatures from + 4 ° C to + 30 ° C. Optimum from + 20 ° C - + 23 ° C to + 25 ° C - + 28 ° C. The optimum humidity is 90–98%. Anthracnose develops especially strongly in warm and humid weather. The aboveground organs of diseased plants are almost entirely covered with brown spots. At favorable temperature and humidity, the incubation period of anthracnose is reduced to 3 days. Lowering the temperature increases the incubation period of the disease. At a relative humidity of about 60%, the activity of fungi of this genus decreases, and the disease does not manifest itself.


Genus Colletotrichum - widespread everywhere. The species infect plants both outdoors and in greenhouses.

Diseases cx. cultures ,caused by


Genus Colletotrichum - parasitic fungi that infect various plants. Some species affect vegetative organs more often, others - fruits. Harmfulness is associated with premature death of plants, loss of marketability, and a decrease in yield. Representatives of the genus cause diseases:

  • Cucumber anthracnose - causative agent Colletotrichum orbiculare.
  • Tomato anthracnose - causative agent Colletotrichum coccodes.
  • Pumpkin anthracnose - the causative agent Colletotrichum lagenaria
  • Brown rot of tomato root - causative agent Colletotrichum coccodes.
  • Eggplant anthracnose - causative agent Colletotrichum coccodes.
  • Tomato fruit anthracnose - pathogens Colletotrichum phomoides, Colletotrichum kruegerianum .