Bird Families

Eupodotis senegalensis

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The bustard is a very large bird with a strong body, long neck and powerful legs. He walks slowly and measuredly. When the bustard flies, you involuntarily pay attention to the slow but powerful blows of the wings. The largest of the bustards, large and gigantic, are among the heaviest flying birds in the world. An unforgettable sight is the mating dance of the bustard. In a large bustard, the male throws back its neck, spreads its wings, spreads its tail and inflates its throat sac. The male bustard that pokes up becomes like a huge badminton shuttlecock. Unfortunately, it is now very rare to see the bustard current. It lives on vast, treeless plains, which are more and more plowed up nowadays. Although these birds can live in grain and rapeseed fields, their numbers are still declining. Attempts are now being made to breed bustards in captivity, and to release young birds into nature again. This bird is listed in the Red Book.

The family of bustards (Otididae) has 11 genera, including 23-24 species. The most expressive genus of large bustards, which includes the giant bustard, or bustard Corey (Ch. Kori), Arab (Ch. Arabs), Indian (Ch. Nigriceps) and Australian (Ch. Australis) bustards. They are united in size: almost all of them reach a height of 1 m and a mass of 20-23 kg.

The genus of bustard beauties includes one species - wobbling, jack, or beauty bustard (Ch. Undulata). The genus of small bustards includes 5 species, the most common among them is the Senegalese bustard (Eupodotis senegalensis).

In India, the flag, or dwarf, bustard (Sypheotides indica) lives. She belongs to the second kind. Like her large relatives, she is also very careful and does not allow anyone close to her.

Bustard

Bustard (lat.Otididae) - a family of large land birds native to the Old World, the only one in the order bustard (Otidiformes). Includes 26 species and 11 genera.

Traditionally, bustards were classified as a crane-like order, and later, on the basis of molecular data, they were isolated into an independent order. Their closest relatives turned out to be cuckoo (the separation time is estimated at about 60-50 million years ago), and more distant - turacs, these three groups form the clade Otidimorphae.

It is believed that bustards originated in Africa (it was on this continent that they gave significant adaptive radiation in the first half of the Tertiary period). The oldest reliably identified fossil remains of bustards belong to the Pliocene of Eurasia and North Africa, there are also dubious finds of the Miocene age.

Spread

All but one species inhabit the steppes, savannas and semi-deserts of Africa, Asia and southern Europe, one species is the Australian Great Bustard (Ardeotis australis) lives in Australia and New Guinea. 16 species of bustard live exclusively in the tropical zone of Africa, 2 more times appear in its northern part.

Most prefer open spaces with good visibility over a considerable distance. Some African species, such as small bustards (Eupodotis), crested bustards (Lophotis), black-bellied bustards (Lissotis) are tolerant of various woody vegetation, such as acacia groves or thickets of thorny bushes, and small floricans (Sypheotides) and Bengali (Houbaropsis) usually inhabit areas with tall grass.

Description

The size and weight of birds varies significantly from 40 to 120 cm and from 0.45 to 19 kg, respectively (inaccessible link), the largest representative of the family is considered the African Great Bustard (Ardeotis kori), reaching a height of 110 cm and a weight of up to 19 kg, which makes it one of the most massive flying birds on Earth.

The physique is strong. The head is relatively large, slightly flattened in the upper part. In males of the bustard genera (Otis), large bustards (Ardeotis), African bustards (Neotis), black-bellied bustards (Lissotis), beautiful bustards (Chlamydotis) and Bengal floricans (Houbaropsis) there is a feathery crest on the head, which is especially noticeable during mating games. The beak is short and straight. The neck is long, slightly thickened. The wings are large and strong; when a danger appears, birds most often try to fly away.The legs are long, with wide and relatively short toes, on which there are rigid corpus callosities in the lower part, the hind toe is absent, which indicates their terrestrial lifestyle. Male bustards are larger than females, which is most noticeable in large species - the difference in their size reaches up to 1/3 of the length of the other sex, in smaller species the difference is less noticeable.

The plumage is mainly of protective shades: in the upper part it is brown or finely cross-striped, which well merges the bird pressed to the ground with the environment. In the lower part, the plumage is different: in species that inhabit open spaces, it is often white, and sometimes black in dense vegetation. Many species have black-and-white spots on their wings, which are invisible on the ground and are clearly visible during flight. Males, as a rule, are colored more brightly than females, at least during the breeding season, with the exception of the genus Lesser Bustards (Eupodotis), where the plumage of both sexes looks the same.

Lifestyle

Bustards are exclusively terrestrial, never using trees or shrubs. Several species, such as the bustard (Otis tarda) or little bustard (Tetrax tetrax) gather in flocks, and the latter live in groups of several thousand individuals. Desert-adapted species such as the beauty bustard (Chlamydotis), live more secluded. Some species gather in groups only during the mating season. They can often be seen among herds of grazing animals, where they hunt disturbed insects and are more protected from attacks by predators.

Only a few populations are exclusively sedentary, while the majority are nomadic or migratory birds. Species that breed in Asia migrate long distances in winter.

Food

Bustards are omnivores and have a very wide dietary range. However, in most species, plant food still predominates. They use young shoots, flowers and leaves of herbaceous plants, dig up soft roots, feed on fruits and seeds. In addition, they feed on various insects: beetles, grasshoppers and other arthropods. Sometimes they eat small vertebrates: reptiles, rodents, etc., not disdaining to eat carrion. Birds can do without water for a long time, but if it is available they drink it well.

Reproduction

The breeding season usually coincides with the heavy rainy season when food is abundant. When courtship, males of many species arrange magnificent demonstrations, in which they are able, ruffling their necks, emit an impressive drum trill, as well as inflate it like a balloon. Small species, especially those living among tall grass, jump high in the air or make small flights so that it is noticeable from a distance.

As a rule, there is no long-term relationship between the female and the male, and after fertilization, the female incubates the eggs and hatches the chicks alone. The nest is arranged on the ground, in a small depression covered with grassy vegetation. The female lays 1-6 (most often 2-4) eggs for several days. The incubation period is different for different species, but generally lasts in a small interval of 20-25 days. Chicks are of the brood type and are able to leave the nest within a few hours after birth.

Entries by tag: Senegalese Little Bustard

There was clearly some movement in the bush on the left, which we first attributed to the big cat. In the end, the "cat" was kicked out and turned out to be a bustard.

Lissotis melanogaster Black-bellied korhan
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After meeting with jack in Kazakhstan on a Kenyan trip, I really wanted to see the bustard Corey (African big bustard, Ardeotis kori). Did not work out. Either the season was not suitable, or there was too little time to search.

Nevertheless, out of eight Kenyan bustard species, one managed to be seen.

Senegalese bustard Eupodotis senegalensis... We came across a couple near the road on the way back to the camp, already almost at dusk. In the photo - a male, a female almost immediately disappeared into the tall grass.

See what "Eupodotis senegalensis" is in other dictionaries:

Eupodotis senegalensis - Saltar a navegación, búsqueda? Sisón senegalés Estado de conservación… Wikipedia Español

Eupodotis senegalensis - senegalinis einis statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Eupodotis senegalensis angl. white bellied bustard vok.Senegaltrappe, f rus. senegalese little bustard, f pranc. outarde du Sénégal, f ryšiai: platesnis terminas - mažieji ... Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

Eupodotis - Saltar a navegación, búsqueda? Eupodotis Eupodotis rueppellii Clasificación cien… Wikipedia Español

Eupodotis - Eupodotis ... Wikipédia en Français

Eupodotis - Taxobox name = Eupodotis image caption = A group of Rüppell s Bustards regnum = Animalia phylum = Chordata classis = Aves ordo = Gruiformes familia = Otididae genus = Eupodotis genus authority = Lesson 1839 Eupodotis is a genus of bird in the…… Wikipedia

Outarde du Sénégal - Outarde du Sénégal ... Wikipédia en Français

List of African birds - This list of African birds is a listing of all the bird species known from the continent of Africa. TOCrightNotesThere are over 45 billion different species of birds in Africa.The taxonomy of this list adheres to James Clitorus Birds of the World ... Wikipedia

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List of Southern African birds - This is a list of the bird species recorded in Southern Africa. Southern Africa is defined as Africa south of a line between the Kunene and Zambezi rivers, encompassing Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland and southern…… Wikipedia

Liste Des Espèces D'oiseaux Du Sénégal - Nombre d espèces: 663 Nombre d espèces globalement menacées: 7 Nombre d espèces introduites: 1 Sommaire… Wikipédia en Français

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