Second edition. First publication: Golovan V.I. 1982. On the post-nesting life of some representatives of the flycatcher family // Vestn. Leningrad. un-ta 9: 106-109.
Text of the scientific work on the topic "On the post-nesting life of flycatchers - pied fly Ficedula hypoleuca, Lesser Ficedula parva and gray Muscicapa striata"
Russian Ornithological Journal 2011, Volume 20, Express issue 683: 1687-1692
Post-nesting life of pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca, Lesser Ficedula parva and gray Muscicapa striata
Second edition. First published in 1982 *
It is known that observation of the life of young birds of forest species in the post-nesting period is very laborious. This is primarily due to the secretive lifestyle of birds after leaving the nests, their high mobility, and the fact that most birds, in particular young flycatchers, stay at this time mainly in the crowns of trees. Fledglings of flycatchers that have switched to self-feeding are kept in small flocks and one by one. At this time, they usually become silent, and due to this, it often seems that they disappear from the area of birth. Concerning the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca, this opinion has been repeatedly expressed in the literature, and the post-nesting movements of broods of this species were understood as the beginning of the departure of birds from the birth area (Drost, Schilling 1940, Haartman 1949, Creutz 1955, Likhachev 1955, Karpovich 1962, Viksne 1968, etc. .). So, according to A.V. Mikheev (1971), young pied flycatchers are already disappearing from the Moscow region by mid-July. This opinion was confirmed by the ringing data. For example, it was known that in mid-August birds of this species from the central regions of Russia were already caught in northern Italy (Karpovich 1962).
Only recently, as a result of special studies, reports began to appear on the capture of young lemons, ringed on nests by chicks, near birthplaces at the age of 40-45 days (Paevsky 1967, Zimin, Lapshin 1976, Jones et al. 1977, Berndt, Winkel 1979 ). However, the data available in the literature do not yet give a complete picture of the territorial behavior of young birds of different species in the post-nesting period of their life. It still remains largely mysterious. Some of the issues of the biology of flycatchers during this period remain generally unexplored.
The purpose of our study was to study in detail the behavior of young birds after leaving the nest, to establish the age of their transition to independent life, the duration of stay in the birth area and
* Golovan VI 1982. On the post-nesting life of some representatives of the flycatcher family // Vestn. Leningrad. un-ta 9: 106-109.
tera of their territorial behavior. The study of post-nesting life and territorial behavior of 3 species of flycatchers: pied, small Ficedula parva and gray Muscícapa striata - was started in 1971-1972 and continued in 1975-1980 on the northeastern coast of Lake Ladoga in the Gumbaritsa tract. Every year there were carried out mass marking of birds on the nests with rings and various dyes and their subsequent capture. The use of colored rings in studying the behavior of flycatchers turned out to be ineffective and had to be abandoned. Along with visual observations, birds were caught with stationary Rybachin traps and spider nets. The most intensive catching of birds with spider nets was carried out in 1980. During July and early August, flycatchers were caught simultaneously at 3-4 points located along the coastline of Lake Ladoga and in the floodplain forests of streams.
In the course of the work, 1,392 juvenile pies, 240 gray flycatchers and 18 small flycatcher chicks were ringed. Observations of the behavior of 26 broods of the pied flycatcher, 9 broods of the gray flycatcher and 2 broods of the lesser flycatcher were carried out.In the pre-migration period, information was received on 187 recaptures of 134 individuals.
Pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca
In the north of the Leningrad Region, the mass emergence of pied chicks occurs at the end of June - the first ten days of July. Deadlines for leaving nests are June 24, 1977 and July 29, 1976 and 1980. The transition to life outside the nest occurs at 15-17 days of age. The pies flying out of the nests quite confidently fly from tree to tree and soon find themselves in their crowns. Despite their relatively good flying abilities, in comparison with fledglings of small and gray flycatchers, pieds sit motionless most of the time, periodically issuing inviting calls. During the first 3-4 days, the parents themselves fly up to the chicks and feed them. At 20 days of age, fledglings begin to fly after adult birds, persistently begging for food. The first attempts at independent search and seizure of prey are noted in pieds at the end of the first - beginning of the second week of independent life, i.e. at the age of 22-24 days, flying insects are already available for 24-25-day-old fledglings. At the age of one month, the pies completely switch to an independent life and are kept separate from their parents. At this time, the broods disintegrate, and in the future, young birds keep in small groups and one by one.
Before the broods break up, bird movements are limited to the immediate vicinity of the nesting site. So, chicks from nest boxes G-5, 9, 25 and 41 were caught from 15 to 30 July only 25-500 m from the nesting sites. During two weeks, three broods of pied leopards constantly met in the old pine forest and adjoining deciduous youngsters. Their habitat area during this period was limited to an area of 1/4 km2. Only with the transition of fledglings to an independent life do they begin to expand the territory of their stay. About mobility
individuals at this age can be judged by the data of repeated captures. A 37-day-old young bird (XA 779271) was caught on July 28 2.4 km southeast of the nest where it was born, and after 4 days it again fell into a trap located 600 m southwest of its place of birth. Birds from the same brood moved in different directions. A 38-day-old fledgling (XA 779216) was caught 1.5 km southwest of the nest, and another individual from the same brood was sighted 1.2 km northwest of the nest a day later.
Interesting data was obtained during the capture of birds, carried out on July 29, 1980. The pied, marked with the ring XA 774778, was caught in a net 11 km north-west, and the other two - 7 and 22 km south-east of their places of birth. Thus, there are individual differences in the territorial behavior of pestles. A significant part of individuals for a long time lives in the area of birth, while some birds already at 36-39 days of age are found at a distance of 15-22 km from the nests where they were born.
Movements of young pied flycatchers were made in different directions, but the southeastern and northwestern ones were predominant. This direction of movement is due to the nature of the location of forest biotopes in the area of work. Forests here grow on ridges stretching in the form of narrow ribbons parallel to the shores of Lake Ladoga. For pied birds, as well as for other species of flycatchers living here, before the onset of autumn migration, movements are characteristic only in tree and shrub stations and a daily type of daily activity. We did not observe their overcoming of open spaces during this period of the year.
It is difficult to judge what part of young birds lingers in the birth area before the start of the autumn departure for wintering. The latest captures of juvenile leopards in the nest area are in the first ten days of August. The maximum age of individuals caught at this time was 49-53 days. Consequently, the juveniles kept in close proximity to the nests in which they were born, 33-37 days after emergence from the nests and within 19-23 days after the transition to independent life.
Lesser flycatcher Ficedula parva
Flycatcher chicks emerged from the nests we found on 4, 7, and 8 July. Disturbed chicks jump out of nests at the age of 11 days.Normal hatching occurs 12-13 days after hatching. For 2-3 days, the broods kept near the ground, and then ascended to the upper tiers of the forest. Here fledglings spent most of the day. 15-16-day-old fledglings passively waited for the arrival of their parents with food. On the 4-5th day of being outside the nest, the fledglings
followed the adult birds, persistently begging for food from them. The transition to independent search and seizure of prey was noted in small flycatchers on the 7-8th day after leaving the nest. At the end of the second - beginning of the third decade of July, fledglings reaching 27-29 days of age were encountered without parents. Since that time, young birds kept mostly alone.
Before the brood disintegration and in the first week of independent life, the young were observed in the immediate vicinity of their birthplaces. One of the birds, ringed by a chick, was caught on July 30, 6 km southeast of the nest where it was born.
Gray Flycatcher Muscícapa striata
The abandonment of nests by gray flycatcher chicks in the north of the Leningrad Region is observed from the first days of July to early August. Departure from nests occurs on the 12-14th day of the chicks' life. At this age, fledglings are not yet capable of long-term flight and sit on the trees nearest to the nests. In cases of premature abandonment of the nest, they land in the grass and move along the ground within 1-3 days. Observations of individually marked birds have shown that gray flycatchers acquire the ability to confidently fly over and gain height on the 15-16th day after their birth.
For the first 5-7 days, the chicks that flew out of the nests stayed directly on the nesting sites of their parents or in the immediate vicinity. Some broods lived near their native nests for 2-3 weeks. At the same time, the relocation of family flocks to a distance of up to 1.5-2 km was also noted.
We did not observe any biotopic redistribution of gray flycatchers in July-August. They kept in the same stations where they nested. The movements of birds at this time took place mainly along the shores of Lake Ladoga and along the edges of forest ridges located among swamps.
The first attempts to seize insects are made by fledglings at the age of 26-28 days, i.e. on the 12-14th day after leaving the nests. During the week, broods are kept together with their parents, and part of the diet of young birds are objects taken by adult birds. Gray flycatchers become independent somewhat later than lemons and small flycatchers. The most recent cases of begging for food from parents by fledglings of the gray flycatcher were observed at the age of 32-34 days.
The gray flycatcher is one of the most late sleeping birds. Adult birds continue to hunt at dusk and feed chicks within 25-30 minutes after sunset. So, according to
A.S. Malchevsky (1959), in the Voronezh region in the second half of July, the gray flycatcher remains active until 20:00. In the area of our study, at the same time of the year, the gray flycatcher fed fledglings until 22:30 (sunset at 21:00 45 min - 21 h 55 min). Immediately after sunset, the fledglings begin to overlap and gather together, settling in a close group at night in the crowns of trees.
The latest catches of young birds of this species are in mid-August. By this time, their age is 37-46 days. Consequently, gray flycatchers are found in the birth area 4 weeks after emergence from the nests and within 7-12 days after the transition to independent life.
Molting in young pied birds begins at the age of 26-29 days, and in gray flycatchers - on the 23-25th day of life. In all three studied flycatcher species, a change in juvenile feathers was noted on all pterilia. Only the flywheels, rudders and part of the wing coverts are not replaced. The duration of the postjuvenile molt in the gray flycatcher and the pied flycatcher is approximately the same and amounts to 35-40 days. The difference in the timing of the overgrowing of apteria in these species is striking. In the gray flycatcher, it begins on the 16-17th day after birth and precedes the change of chick plumage.The overgrowth of apteria in the pestle occurs later than the beginning of the post-juvenile molt and ends shortly before its completion. In some individuals of three species of flycatchers in the study area, the end of the post-juvenile molt coincided with autumn migration.
Pied flycatchers and small flycatchers become completely independent at 28-30 days of age, and gray flycatchers - at the age of 32-34 days.
In all studied species, the majority of young birds continue to stay in the birth area until the start of autumn migration, i.e. until the first half of August. Only a few individuals leave the area of birth soon after gaining independence.
For the flycatchers living in the Leningrad region - gray, small and pied fly - the beginning of the autumn departure for wintering before the end of the post-juvenile molt is characteristic. No species differences were found in its volume and duration.
Viksne Ya. A. 1968. On the importance of post-nesting roaming in the territorial distribution of nesting black-headed gulls (Lagiv t1d, lubliv) // Ecology of waterfowl in Latvia. Riga: 167-205.
Gibet L.A., Berman D.I. 1962. Placement of small forest birds in the post-nest
war period in the Kalinin region // Ornithology 5: 96-100. Zimin V.B., Lapshin N.V. 1976. Results of catching and tagging birds in the nest
period // Materials of the 9th Baltic states. ornithol. conf. Vilnius: 96-102. Karpovich V.N. 1962. Ecology of mass inhabitants of artificial nests (starling, pied flycatcher) in the area of the Oka nature reserve // Tr. Oka Reserve 4: 65-176. Likhachev G.N. 1955. Pied flycatcher (Muscicapa hypoleuca Pal!) And its relationship with
nesting territory // Tr. Banding Bureau 8: 123-156. Malchevsky A.S. 1959. Breeding life of songbirds: Reproduction and postembryonic development of forest passerines in the European part of the USSR. L .: 1-282. Mikheev A.V. 1971. Flights of birds. M .: 1-208.
Paevsky V.A. 1967. About the territorial behavior of young birds of forest species
in the post-nesting time // Tr. Zool. Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences 50: 87-95. Rakhilin V.K. 1960. Experience in studying the biology of birds using individual labeling // Animal migration 2: 185-197. Berndt R., Winkel W. 1979. Verfrachtungs-Experimente zur Frage der Geburtsortprägung beim Trauerschnäpper (Ficedula hypoleuca) // J. Ornithol. 120, 1: 41-53. Creutz G. 1955. Der Trauerschnäppers (Muscicapa hypoleuca Pallas). Eine Populationsstudie // J. Ornithol. 96, 3: 241-326. Drost R., Schilling L. 1940. Über der Zug des Trauerschnäppers Muscicapa hypoleuca (Pall.) // Vogelzug 11: 71-85. Haartman L., von. 1949. Der Trauerschnäpper. 1. Ortstreue und Rassenbildung //
Acta zool. fenn. 56: 56-104. Jones H.P., Mead C.J., Durman R.F. 1977. The migration of the pied flycatcher from and through Britain // Bird Study 57: 2-14.
Russian Ornithological Journal 2011, Volume 20, Express issue 683: 1692-1693
Meetings of the White-fronted Thrush Turdus torquatus on Mangyshlak
O. V. Mitropolsky
Second edition. First published in 1994 *
The arid low mountains of Mangyshlak are located to the east and north of the modern nesting area of the white-toothed thrush Turdus torquatus, the nearest parts of which are confined to the mountains of Dagestan and the Big Balkhans in Turkmenistan. In Mangyshlak, this species is rarely found on spring and autumn migrations. During the research period
* Mitropol'skiy O.V. 1994. Meetings of the White-throated Thrush on Mangyshlak // Selevinia 2, 4: 66.1 dCHO Rus. ornithol. zhurn. 2011. Volume 20. Express Edition No. 683
Features and habitat
The world of birds is very diverse, there are different representatives in it, many of them are inconspicuous, but this does not make them less interesting. Today's story will go about such birds.
Meet the unique bird with the title flycatcher... There are more than three hundred species of these birds on earth and it will not be possible to talk about all of them, so we present to the reader's attention the three most common species that live in our latitudes, namely the small flycatcher, the pied flycatcher and the bird with the name gray flycatcher.
These species of flycatchers choose open spaces for living and therefore settle in open woodlands, where there are many open forest glades and glades. There are a lot of these cute birdies in the countryside, they are not afraid to settle close to people, and, as you know, there is an abundance of their favorite food - flies, as you know, in villages and villages.
In the photo, the bird pied flycatcher
Flycatchers are migratory, with the arrival of winter, birds fly from Russia to different countries with warm climates, for example, a gray flycatcher and a pied fly go to winter on the African continent, and a small flycatcher prefers to fly away for winter holidays to the southern regions of Asia.
It should be noted right away that all flycatchers are small birds, no larger than a sparrow, but their color is much more varied. For example, in the taiga forests, you can find multi-colored flycatchers, where along with white and black shades there will be rich shades - bright blue, lemon, ripe cherry and even orange color.
Nature has awarded males with bright plumage, and females are always more inconspicuous. With us in the neighborhood lives, as mentioned earlier, a gray flycatcher and the name speaks for itself, because this bird cannot boast of bright plumage.
In the photo, a gray flycatcher bird
It is an inconspicuous gray with brown specks on the wings and light markings on the abdomen. Flycatchers have long and narrow wings. Looking at flycatcher bird photo, many will surely see the birdie that lives in the neighborhood.
All varieties of flycatchers have a fairly wide beak, at the base of which elastic hairs are symmetrically located; in some species of birds, these rigid bristles can even block the nostrils.
Such a device helps flycatchers catch insects right in flight - a favorite delicacy of birds. It should be noted that catching insects on the fly with these birds is good, they do it very deftly, and at the moment when the victim is caught, the bird's beak slams and at the same time a characteristic sound resembling a click sounds.
Character and lifestyle
Flycatchers live up to their name because they are very good fly catchers. Birds hunt in a peculiar way: the birdie takes a convenient place on a branch, so that the foliage covers it and periodically jumps up, grabs a fly flying past and returns back to ambush. It should be noted that flycatchers do not only catch flies.
The small flycatcher is a master of aerial hunting and, perhaps, there is no equal to it in this. This bird is agile, active, nimble, in general, very mobile. But the singer from the gray flycatcher is unimportant.
Nature has not endowed this bird with an excellent voice. Bird song more like a clatter, and sometimes the flycatcher can chirp. The male usually chirps during the mating period, while he taps himself on the sides with his wings.
Listen to the voice of the flycatcher bird
The trills of the small flycatcher are more tender and sonorous. The melody is a bit like a fusion of indistinct drawn-out syllables, something like "heel-li, heal-li."
Flycatcher bird feeding
The question of what a flycatcher eats can be answered briefly: "Everything that catches her eye and what a bird can put in its beak." On clear, fine days, flies, dragonflies, and medium-sized species of butterflies serve as food for flycatchers.
The bird will not refuse from the horsefly, which will fly into the zone of its hunting ground. When weather conditions do not allow flying, the flycatcher willingly eats caterpillars, beetles and other insects that take shelter from the rain under the foliage of a tree, where the bird is hiding from the weather.
In the photo, the male and female birds of the pied flycatcher
By the way of feeding, different types of flycatchers do not differ much, usually the diet of birds and the way of obtaining food depends on the habitat, climate, time of day and other factors.
They hunt for all small insects in the air, and they do not bypass the creeping ones. When the flycatcher lifts the foliage on the ground with its beak, then under it it looks for food for itself, which can be ants, spiders, bugs and other trifles.
Reproduction and life expectancy
Pied flycatchers arrange their nests in hollows. Sometimes a flycatcher's nest can be found in a birdhouse. The male pestle behaves in an interesting way: he finds an empty hollow, sits down next to him and begins to sing.
In the photo, a nest with a clutch of a flycatcher bird
The female, hearing the love trills, flies to the place indicated by the singing.But it also happens that the male is lucky enough to find not one, but several empty hollows at once, and then, having lured a bird to one nesting place, he flies to another hollow and again begins to whistle love songs and the female again flies to him.
Thus, the male pied flycatcher can be called the owner of the harem. True, the male plays the role of the father of the family in full. During the entire nesting period, the father of the family carefully guards the family nest, which, by the way, he builds together with the female.
The male alternately helps the females to feed the yellow-mouthed chicks, flying from one nest to another.
Interesting! Bird watchers estimate that a couple of flycatchers can complete 500 flights for food and back in a day to feed voracious chicks. The extermination of such a number of insects can be safely called a useful activity.
The gray flycatcher builds a nest late by bird standards. To do this, she chooses the end of spring. The female of the gray flycatcher equips the nest herself without the help of the male. In the first month of summer, eggs appear in the nest, of which, as usual, there are no more than 6 pieces.
The shell is colored slightly greenish with small blotches of dark shades. During its short life, the flycatcher destroys a huge number of harmful insects and this brings undoubted benefits to the surrounding world.