Extinct species IUCN 3.1
: / 150580
- an extinct bird of the Parrot family
In the wild, among the most common habitats are the following: Burma, Indo-China Peninsula, Vietnam, Southern Afghanistan, Pakistan, Sri Lanka. Basically, the Alexandrian parrot (the price of a chick in our country starts from 9,000 rubles) inhabits the tropical forest zone. Unfortunately, the conditions of the wild do not have a very favorable effect on the hatching of offspring.
If we talk about home keeping, then birds have many chances for productive reproduction. For this, the main thing is that an enclosure of sufficient size should be built. Then it must be equipped with an artificial nest, cover the bottom with a rammed bedding made of a mixture of peat with sawdust or wood.
Pink-bellied parrots in Russia are not among the most popular birds kept in captivity. Although in other countries (for example, the USA) they are quite popular. They are characterized as very calm and non-destructive pets (in comparison with other species, they do not gnaw or break anything). People get used to it quickly. The main activity is in the morning and evening hours. The voice when singing during the hours of activity is melodic and pleasant. They cannot copy human speech. Other winged ones are treated kindly, even those who are smaller in size. But their soft nature makes them easy prey if kept with aggressive feathered neighbors. Sensitive to temperature extremes and cold. It is advisable to offer them a cage of the longest possible size.
Prospective owners can read the following materials that will be useful for learning:
- Feeding parrots - a list of permitted foods, tips for a varied diet, including cereal mixes, fruits, vegetables, berries, cereals, twigs and plant foods.
- What I need for a parrot in a cage - a list of priority purchases that the owner should make, with an explanation of what and why you need.
- Parrot cage catalog - a catalog with the ability to filter by bird size (small, medium, large), manufacturer (all well-known manufacturers are represented), as well as sorting by popularity, price, new products and alphabet.
The Alexandrian necklace parrot is a bright, incredibly beautiful bird. It is quite large - about 60 cm in length. But if only to measure with the tail together. It should be noted that it accounts for almost half of the entire length. The feathers are mostly green. On the abdomen - light green, at the top of the wings have burgundy-brown spots.
At the same time, males are also decorated with a kind of "necklace" - this is a ring that covers the lower region of the beak to the center of the neck and continues in red throughout the upper region of the neck. They do not show this decoration immediately, only when they grow up, by the age of three.
Females are completely devoid of such a "necklace". The Alexandrian parrot also has a large red beak. It is burgundy or bright red in adults and red-orange in juveniles.
Extinct Parrot Species
Yellow-green jamaican macaw (lat. Ara erythrocephala) Was endemic to Jamaica. Exterminated, presumably in the 19th century. Known only from the description of the English naturalist Philip Henry Gosse in 1847.
Guadalupe Aratinga (lat. Aratinga labati) A small parrot, known only from the description of Jean-Baptiste Labat, made by him in 1722 in his work "Nouveau Voyage aux isles l'Amérique". The main color of the plumage is green. There are several red feathers on the head. Was endemic to Guadeloupe. It died out in the 18th century.
Red Jamaican Macaw (lat. Ara gossei) Known only from an 1847 description of the English naturalist Philip Henry Gossei, based on a sample killed around 1765 about 10 miles east of the settlement of Lucea (Jamaica). Some authors suggest that the red Jamaican macaw was a subspecies of the Cuban macaw, or even the same species.Was endemic to Jamaica.
Martinique Amazon (lat. Amazona martinicana) The head, nape and lower part were gray, the back was green. It is believed that this parrot was very similar to the also extinct purple Amazon (Amazona violacea). This parrot was first mentioned by Jean-Baptiste Labat in 1742. Lived on the island of Martinique (Lesser Antilles). It is believed that this species became extinct before 1800, most likely due to the destruction of its natural habitat.
Mascarene parrot (lat. Mascarinus mascarinus) Body length 35 cm. The head is lilac-blue, in front of the head (face) is black. Front - smoky brown, back, wings - dark brown smoky. Underwing, undertail - paler than the front. 12 tail feathers are black-brown. The 10 outer tail feathers are white at the base by a quarter of their length. The beak is red. The iris is red. The periocular ring is red-cherry. Paws are reddish-cherry-flesh-colored. O. Reunion, possibly Fr. Mauritius, Mascarene Islands (Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar).
Description: Based on the description of Brisson ("Ornithology"). In 1760, in Paris, he described an individual living in the royal zoo. The second evidence is 2 stuffed animals and bones, one of them is a faded effigy in the National Historical Museum of Paris - with a flattened skull, dating back to 1800. The second scarecrow is in the National Historical Museum of Vienna, dating from 1806. The third certificate is 2 paintings, painted with 2 different individuals. They do not have a flattened skull. 1 illustration from "A Story of the Birds" 1783, Buffon. 2 illustration from the "Atlas of the Ornithologist" 1834, Hahn - a sketch of the last living representative of this species, who lived in the zoo of the King of Bavaria. Khan described the bird as sedentary and not sanguine. Perhaps she was old. Disappeared by the beginning of the 19th century (the last registered copy lived with Ludwig I, King of Bavaria). Earlier, birdwatchers attributed Mascarinus to the Vasa parrot (Coracopsis).
Remarks: Dubois was the first to describe this bird in 1674. In the 18th century, many birds were brought to France for private collections. It was from these parties of birds that Linnaeus, Brisson and Buffon made their sketches and descriptions. At the same time, 3 stuffed birds were made. Evidence of the existence of a bird on the island. Mauritius are 2 descriptions by travelers. 1- Peter Mundy mentioned the "Red-brown parrots" in 1638 AND 2 - J.C. In the early 1670s, Hoffmann saw red "ravens" with curved beaks and blue heads, and called it Indiaensche ravens - Indian Raven. The 1598 illustrations of these "crows" made by Van Nek - birds are 2 times larger than parrots and 2-3 are colored. But their descriptions are not very similar to the mascarene parrot. In addition, Hoffmann wrote about the difficulties of a bird's flight. And studies of the bones found contradict this. The bird should not have had any difficulties with the ability to fly. The only part inaccessible for research is the sternum. It could have been the cause of the bad flight. Another point - not necessarily the same subspecies lived on 2 islands. Besides. Hoffmann may have meant a simple reluctance to fly. Another fact is that the available bone remains of these birds were found on the island of Reunion. From about. Mauritius no.
If on about. Mauritius and there were these birds - they disappeared even before the disappearance from about. Reunion.
The reasons for the extinction and disappearance of the bird remain a mystery. Dodo also lived on the Mascarene Islands.
Other Latin names: Mascarinus mascarinus (Dubois, 1674) - which is considered the first description of a bird, not Linnaeus.
Norfolk cocoa (lat.Nestor productus) Norfolk cocoa (lat.Nestor productus) is an extinct species of birds of the parrot family.
He inhabited the mountainous regions of Norfolk Island, north of New Zealand, until the settlement of Europeans.
The species was approximately 40 cm long. The plumage was dominated by yellow, orange and brown colors. Little information on bird behavior comes from John Gould. He had the opportunity to see a bird in captivity in Sydney. According to him, the Norfolk kaka moved by jumping on the ground. This coincides with the description of the mode of movement of other nestor parrots.
Soon after the settling of the islands, hunting for gullible birds led to a rapid decline.The rate of extinction can be illustrated by the example of the fact that the species was described for science only in 1836, and already in 1851 the last animal kept as a poultry in London died. In the wild, the species disappeared even earlier. Today, it is assumed that prisoners and early settlers killed birds for food purposes.
The extinct stuffed animals are in a number of natural science museums. They can be seen, among others, in the natural science museums of Amsterdam, Berlin, Dresden, Florence, Leiden, Liverpool, London, Melbourne, New York, Philadelphia, Prague, Vienna and Washington.
Newton's necklace parrot (lat. Psittacula exsul) Body length 40 cm. Lived on the island of Rodriguez in the Indian Ocean. In nature, the last bird was seen in 1875. The reasons for the disappearance were, most likely, the loss of habitat and hunting for birds.
Paradise Song Parrot (lat. Psephotus pulcherrimus) Body length 27 cm. Forehead, small wing coverts, center of abdomen, undertail and thigh are red. The back of the head and head are black. Areas around the eyes, at the base of the beak and cheek are yellow. The throat, chest and belly are emerald green, turning into turquoise on the sides. The back and primary feathers are brown-gray. The bend of the wing, the coverts of the flight feathers and the underwings are blue. The tail is gray-blue underneath. The periocular ring is gray. The iris is brown. The paws are brown. The female is faded. Mustard forehead. Feathers with orange tips. The abdomen and undertail are blue. There are "blotches" of red on the abdomen. The back, rump, upper tail are turquoise. Small and medium wing coverts are dull red. The edge of the wing, the coverts of the flight feathers, the outer side of the flight feathers are gray-blue. Lived in Australia (center and south of Queensland, New South Wales). They inhabited savannas with rare trees and open areas along the river basin. The nesting period was in September-March. Nests were made in old termite mounds, sometimes in burrows dug in steep banks of dry rivers. There are 4-5 eggs in a clutch. In the second half of the 19th century, they were quite common. Considered recently extinct. Reasons: burning old grass in pastures and trampling them (depriving the parrot of the main source of food - grass seeds), droughts, cutting down eucalyptus trees, ruining nests (by people, local rodents, small predators), catching birds for keeping in a cage (one of the most popular pets Englishmen).
Rodriguez parrot The length is possibly about 50 cm. It is assumed that the main color of the plumage was green. The tail is long. The beak is large. Mascarene Islands (Rodrigues and Offshore Islands, Mauritius). Unsupported mention of a green-red parrot from Fr. Rodriguez - Necropsittacus borbonicus. But there is no evidence that this was not the nominal Necropsittacus rodericanus, or that it was different from the nominal. But if the bird existed, it should have disappeared by 1660. Even less supported historical mention of Necropsittacus francicus from about. Mauritius. Extinct by the third third of the XVIII century. Evidence of Existence: Fossilized Bones, Part of a Fossilized Skull, Travelers' Notes - 1708 Legua
- 1726 G. Taforet - they described the bird as green, with a large head, massive beak and long tail. Many times larger than a dove. It is Taforé who mentions the migration of birds to the coastal islands (in particular, Gobrani (Islet au M? T). At that time the island was overpopulated by rats. On Gobrani, he saw birds eating small black berries or seeds on a tree whose leaves smelled like citrus. ”The source of fresh water was available to them only on the island of Rodriguez, where they returned to drink.
- A.G. Pingre - fr astronomer - in 1761 traveled to the Mascarene Islands. 2 years later, in his report, he mentions a bird. According to his testimony, the bird was rare, and he was able to observe only a few individuals. He was the last bird to be seen alive. About a couple of years later, the bird disappears. The supposed reason is hunting. Preliminary - rats and widespread predators.
- 1674 Dubois describes a green parrot with a red tail, head and elytra. Based on this description, Rothchild identifies Necropsittacus borbonicus. In interpreting Dubois, he allegedly mentions a similar bird with about Mauritius. It was singled out as Necropsittacus francicus.But Dubois also writes that the birds were smaller in size than a pigeon. Which, in principle, does not correspond to the size of Necropsittacus. Or he has a mistake about the size. )
According to bone studies, the beak was capable of splitting very hard fruits.
Purple amazon (lat. Amazona violacea) There is no data on the appearance of this parrot. Nothing is known about the way of life of these Amazons. It is believed that this species became extinct at the beginning of the 18th century.
Source of information: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B0%..%B8%D1%86%D1%8B
Features of content and taming
If you want to tame this bird, then buy it until the age of five months. The older the individual, the more difficult the process of domestication: in adulthood, birds are timid and aggressive, which does not contribute to domestication. These parrots can memorize 10-15 phrases and words, they have excellent onomatopoeic abilities.
Although some do not like their voice - it is unpleasant and loud. And if you live in an apartment, and not in a house, you may doubt the advisability of buying, since such a loud neighborhood may not suit your neighbors. Consider this feature when purchasing, see for yourself that the pet's voice does not cause irritation and dislike for you.
The cage in which the Alexandrian parrot will be kept must be spacious enough. He loves to fly, while he needs to be released outside the house. With a wingspan of twenty centimeters, the parrot requires space to fly - correlate this moment with the size of your own home.
The bird's cage should be strong, preferably all-metal. Possessing a strong large beak, the parrot loves to gnaw everything, thus testing objects for strength. In this case, the cage will also be tested, therefore, take care of the presence of perches made of durable wood, give the bird twigs, which it will definitely try "to the teeth".
Although, in general, the Alexandrian parrot will not bring much trouble to its owners. It responds well to a sharp drop in temperature. Comfortable conditions for him are 22-25˚C. He is not picky about his diet, which will be discussed in more detail below.
Subspecies of collared parrots and description
An adult Barnard parrot reaches a length of 35–40 cm and weighs 160–170 grams, a wingspan of 36 cm. Sex differences are not very pronounced: the color of males is brighter, with a wide neck collar and a red stripe on the forehead, females have a graceful head and beak.
The subspecies of collared parrots differ in color of individual plumage elements with an unchanged green body with a yellow collar-like stripe around the neck, a tail and wings of an aqua green. The collar is a distinctive feature of Barnard, it is present in every subspecies.
Barnard parrots are divided into four types:
- Malli (Latin name Barnardius zonarius barnardi). This species prefers the arid regions of northern and eastern Australia. The species got its name in honor of the eucalyptus shrub of those places. These birds have a bright green nape and crown, a turquoise lower part of the body with a yellow stripe and a dark blue back.
- Cloncurry, or Boundid (lat. Barnardius zonarius macgillivrayi) on the head can be confused with the previous species, but the plumage of this bird is pale green. Like Mally, they are distinguished by a bright red stripe above the beak. The subspecies has been known since the beginning of the twentieth century and received its unscientific name in honor of one of the Australian cities. It is the only subspecies with a clearly limited natural range. Cloncurries live in northern Australia and eastern Queensland.
- Buln-Buln, or Twenty-Eyt (lat. Barnardius zonarius semitorquatus) is named so for the sounds that a parrot makes during flight. It is a light green bird with a bright green crown and blue-green feathers on its cheeks.
- You can distinguish the Port Lincoln parrot (Latin Barnardius zonarius occidentalis), living in the southwestern part of Australia, from Twenty-Eight only by the color of the belly: at Twenty-Eight it is green. The rest of the color is the same.
Nuts, grain feed, vegetables, fruits, greens are the diet of this bird.At the same time, some cereals must be presoaked: peas, wheat, corn, barley must first be processed, while the seeds of sunflower, millet, oats are also consumed by the Alexandrian parrot in dry form. Milk-ripe corn is especially useful for poultry. Parrots love her, while chicks simply need her.
When fresh fruit is not available, dried fruit will do, although they must also first be soaked in water for several hours and then given to the parrot. It is worth noting that one bird will need 50-60 grams of such feed.
Collared parrots love activity and even in captivity need to fly. To keep these birds, you will need an aviary with a minimum length of 3.5-4 meters. It should always contain twigs for grinding the beak, otherwise the feathered friends will take up the destruction of all accessible wooden surfaces, including the enclosure itself. When arranging nesting houses, you should also remember about the strong beak of collared parrots.
These parrots do not like dampness, so the humidity in the room should not exceed 50-60%. Birds love the sun, but it is important to arrange shady spots so that feathered friends can take shelter if they wish. In the cold season, daylight hours will have to be increased to 17-18 hours.
The Alexandrian parrot reproduces well at home, as mentioned above. If you have planned to purchase a pair, then the length of the cage should be at least 2 meters - this is the opinion of foreign fans of this type of parrots. Although domestic experience demonstrates the possibility of their reproduction in smaller enclosures. It will also be necessary to build a nesting house made of hard wood, the diameter of the tap hole should be at least 10 cm.It is necessary to fill the bottom with a five-centimeter layer of rotten wood, wood dust, sawdust.
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Collar rosella, or Bernard's parrot, or collar rosella (Barnardius barnardi)
Subfamily - True parrots
Genus - Barnard parrots
- Barnardius barnardi zonarius - the head is black, the back, tail and wings are bright green, the throat and chest are blue-green. The belly is yellow.
- Barnardius barnardi semitorquatus - the head is black, the back, tail and wings are bright green, the throat and chest are blue-green. The belly is green.
- Cloncurry (Barnardius barnardi macgillivrayi) - Head, crown and breast are green with a bright yellow stripe on the neck. The abdomen is yellow, the area of the cheeks from the auricle to the beak has a blue tint. They can be seen in eastern northern Australia and eastern Queensland.
Body length is approximately 37-38 cm. The plumage is mostly green. The head is black with a tinge, the cheeks are bluish. Some birds have a narrow red stripe on the forehead. Some have a yellow mark on the back of their heads. The feathers on the lower back are blue-green. The wings are yellow-green. The throat and chest are bluish green. The belly is yellow. Legs are gray. Females are paler than males.
The species lives in the southern, central and western parts of Australia.
Birds feed mainly on seeds, fruits, nuts, berries, flowers and buds, insects and their larvae. In the south-west of their range, birds seek food in the trees rather than on the ground. May harm fruit tree plantations, especially pears and apple trees.
The nesting period depends on the area of distribution. Southern populations usually nest from August to December. On mainland Australia, precipitation determines the start of breeding. Parrots lay their eggs in the hollow, preferring eucalyptus trees growing near water bodies or rivers as a nesting tree. Clutch contains 4 to 7 eggs. Only the female incubates. The incubation period is 20 to 22 days.
Keeping in captivity
It is one of the more well-known species and is easy to keep in captivity.
It is advisable to acquire a cage so that the bottom can be pushed out. This will make it more convenient for you to maintain order in the bird dwelling. Parrots should have a floor of sawdust or clean river sand on the floor. There must be a distance of at least two centimeters between the bars of the cage.
There should be perches in the cage, the size of which will allow the parrot to sit quietly at the same time, without completely grasping the perch. Twigs of oak, birch or beech can serve as perches. You do not need to peel the branches from the bark.
Parrots should be kept in a clean and dry environment, as they cannot tolerate dampness. However, it should be borne in mind that Rosellas are clean and love to swim. For these purposes, vessels are intended, corresponding to the size of a parrot and filled with clean water. This species of parrots tolerates temperatures up to - 20 degrees. Only the cage should be protected from the wind. It should be borne in mind that they can freeze fingers. Optimally and without harmful effects, birds tolerate temperatures up to - 10 degrees.
The humidity level in the room where the parrots are kept should not exceed 50 - 70%. Birds should not be deprived of the opportunity to sunbathe or hide in a saving shade, solely at their request. The room must be ventilated. Don't forget to take care of additional lighting. In winter, the parrot will need to extend the daytime to 18 hours a day.
The main food of captive parrots is all varieties of cereals. In addition, it is imperative to include more vitamins and animal feed in the diet. Some types of rosella gladly eat bloodworms, mealworms, and egg mixture. It is especially important that animal feed is present in the chicks' menu. If rosellas do not get enough animal protein, they may abandon clutch or rearing offspring.
Do not leave parrots without a fruit diet. You can give twigs to gnaw. The food ration is two tablespoons of feed per day. In order to prevent worm diseases in parrots, piperazine is added to their food for a week. The normal dose is 1/6 tablet per individual per day.
During the mating season, when the male takes care of the female, he reproduces a peculiar guttural sound, as well as a muttering similar to an affectionate whisper. For full reproduction in the aviary, you will need to leave one pair of parrots. The dimensions of the house, which is suitable as a nest, are approximately the following: 25X25X40 cm or 30X30X45 cm. The diameter of the entrance is at least 8 - 9 cm for all types of parrots. The depth of the nest does not prevent the birds from easily reaching the entrance. In a clutch, on average, 4 to 8 eggs. Litter - a layer of sawdust, wood dust or a mixture of peat and sawdust.
Rosella chicks hatch a little more than three weeks. The hatched chicks are blind, covered with thick down. At first, only the female feeds the chicks, after a few days the male also joins this business. When the chicks are 28 - 35 days old, they leave the nest. But they remain under the care of their parents for another three weeks. Rosella parrots nest twice a year. Young birds fade into adult coloration in the second year of life. They reach sexual maturity by one and a half years of age. If the rozzel is properly fed, provided with good care and care, and a successful pair is found, then they can hatch not only their own, but also other people's eggs.
Life expectancy in captivity is 25 to 35 years.
The nesting period lasts throughout the winter, although hatching of chicks is possible in the summer - and there have been such cases.
The female lays mainly 2-4 eggs. Incubation lasts 23-30 days, during this period the male feeds the female and guards the nest. The hatched chicks stay in the nest for about 8 weeks, after which they leave it, although caring parents continue to feed them for several more weeks. At the same time, the chicks have a plumage color similar to the mother's, perhaps a little lighter, and rich red spots on their wings appear by one and a half years.
Since the period of ancient Rome, Alexandrian parrots have been known as caged poultry.If the process of taming them is started on time, then you will see how docile and affectionate they are. The bird will definitely become your favorite, and you will never regret buying it.
Necklace parrots are not as brightly colored as some other representatives of this order. The main color of the plumage is green or yellow-green. The back of the head has a bluish plumage. On the head there is a narrow dark stripe running from the eyes to the beak. The neck is decorated with a stripe like a necklace (it was she who gave the name to this type), in some species it takes the form of a tie. There are bluish feathers on the wings. The feathers are sharp in shape. A distinctive feature is a long, stepped tail. The size of the necklace parrots ranges from 30 to 50 cm, the wing is 16 cm. The legs are not strong - necklace parrots do not move well on the ground and climb trees, and even use their own beak as an additional point of support. In color, the female and the male differ from each other - the females do not have a necklace on the neck. Juveniles have a coloration similar to that of a female, but their beak is red-orange. Over time, the beak acquires a red tint, and the mandible turns black. In the third year of life, males of necklace parrots acquire adult plumage and color.
Annotation to the book "Acrocephalus rodericanus"
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Der Rodrigues-Rohrsanger (Acrocephalus rodericanus) ist ein seltener Singvogel, der auf der Maskarenen-Insel Rodrigues endemisch ist. Er ist nahe mit dem Seychellen-Rohrsanger (Acrocephalus sechellensis) verwandt. Der Rodrigues-Rohrsanger erreicht eine Lange von 13.5 Zentimeter. Er ist einheitlich olivbraun an der Oberseite und hell schmutziggelb an der Unterseite. Der Schnabel ist lang. Am Unterschnabel.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Der Rodrigues-Rohrsanger (Acrocephalus rodericanus) ist ein seltener Singvogel, der auf der Maskarenen-Insel Rodrigues endemisch ist. Er ist nahe mit dem Seychellen-Rohrsanger (Acrocephalus sechellensis) verwandt. Der Rodrigues-Rohrsanger erreicht eine Lange von 13.5 Zentimeter. Er ist einheitlich olivbraun an der Oberseite und hell schmutziggelb an der Unterseite. Der Schnabel ist lang. Am Unterschnabel zeigt er eine rosa Farbung. Der Oberkopf ist durch eine aufrechte Federhaube gekennzeichnet. Die Stimme besteht aus einem schrillen, schnatternden Alarmruf und einem melodischen Gesang.
This publication is not original. The book is printed using print-on-demand technology after receiving the order.